“Chapter 6: Formal Organizations” and the first half of Chapter 11: Economics and Politics” takes a macro approach to understand modern organizational structures and behaviors. Williams looks at organizations through a microlens. She studies and analyzes specific organizations to understand the day-to-day moments of times and spaces. In this exercise I want you to think about how micro-level realities in a formal organization can help us think about the modern economic system and bureaucratic structures.
Based on what you read in chapters 6 & 11 define terms in your own words.
Iron Cage of Rationality
In Racism in Toyland, Christine Williams explores the role of racism in the everyday behaviors of the retail industry. Briefly explain how she studies this question. Then briefly summarize what she concludes.
Next critically think about how we should understand formal organizations through the lens Williams provides. There is no right or wrong answer.
In your opinion, what does Williams’s piece tell us about the postindustrial society? And what does it tell us about Capitalism?
In your opinion, can capitalism continue to function if there is a built-in racist mechanism within the capitalist system? Explain your answer.
Assuming Williams’s claims and conclusions are accurate; is the racism she exposes rational or is it an example of the Iron Cage of Rationality? Explain your answer.
Refer to the seven characteristics of a bureaucracy (Ferrante 109-110). Choose 2-3 of the characteristics. Clearly, state which items you choose and explain these characteristics in your own words. Finally, compare these characteristics to what we learn about organizations in Williams’s reading. Do the characteristics persist, do they fail, are the amended to meet the actual reality of the organization? What does this tell us about actual bureaucracies as compared to the ideal type?
Saltiness, one of the significant water emergencies happening the world over, is the high convergence of aggregate broke down solids (TDS, for example, sodium and chlorine, in soils and water (Rose, 2004). Saltiness is a basic and pervasive issue influencing Australia, debilitating the Australian indigenous habitat and the maintainability of gainful farming regions (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008; McDowell, 2008). This can be credited to normally high saline levels in the dirts (McDowell, 2008; Pannell, 2001). Over the globe, in nations, for example, in America, Iran, Pakistan, India and China, substantial groupings of salt have amassed after some time because of precipitation, shake weathering, ocean water interruption and airborne stores (Table 1) (Beresford et al., 2001; Hülsebusch et al., 2007). Dryland saltiness, a type of optional saltiness, has especially turned into a noteworthy issue around the world (Beresford et al., 2001). Every year, roughly four million hectares of worldwide farmland is relinquished because of over the top salt (Beresford et al., 2001). Saltiness is an across the board issue with various significant social, financial and ecological outcomes (Beresford et al., 2001). Layout This paper will think about the event and effects of essential and auxiliary saltiness on water assets. The discourse will begin by concentrating on essential saltiness, its event and related effects utilizing a model from the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia. The following piece of the paper will examine optional saltiness, its event and effects utilizing precedents from Katanning Western Australia (WA) and Turkey. Iran and Pakistan will then be analyzed as models demonstrating the event and effects of both essential and optional saltiness. At long last the effects of saltiness will be recognized and the primary contentions of this record condensed. Exchange Essential Salinity Essential saltiness is a characteristic procedure that influences soils and waters and happens by and large in areas of the existence where precipitation is inadequate to drain salts from the dirt and vanishing or transpiration is high (McDowell, 2008). In scenes of high vanishing, transpiration and diminished precipitation, saltiness turns into an issue as the volume of water diminishes while salt fixations increment (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). Around 1000 million hectares, which relates to seven percent of the world's aggregate land zone, is influenced to some degree by salt (Rose, 2004). Most of the globe's saline influenced arrive is impact by essential saltiness coming about because of regular soil advancement (Hülsebusch et al., 2007). Parched tropical territories, specifically, are liable to potential vanishing that is higher than precipitation, which prompts the ascending of water to the topsoil where solutes collect and saltiness can happen normally (Hülsebusch et al., 2007). Australia's bone-dry and semi-dry zones as a rule have salt present in the groundwater (Table 2) (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). For instance, the River Darling ends up saline amid cruel dry spell periods and saltiness fixations increment in the Hunter Valley when stream reduces (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia The Lake Eyre Basin (LEB), in focal Australia, is a to a great extent level region ruled by semi-dry to parched natural conditions (Figure 1) (McMahon et al., 2008). The zone experiences high dissipation rates and spatially and transiently very factor precipitation (Kingsford and Porter, 1993). All year, potential dissipation is normally more noteworthy than real vanishing with normal yearly Class A skillet dissipation rates of 3300 millimeters (mm) (Costelloe et al., 2008). Normal yearly precipitation in the LEB ranges from under 200mm in a few zones, up to 700mm in others, with a yearly coefficient of inconstancy crossing from 0.2 to 0.7 (McMahon et al., 2008). Hydrological conditions in the LEB can differ between delayed times of 18 to24 months of no stream, to shorter stages where immersion of moderate moving surges can happen (Costelloe et al., 2008). The dividing of the steady isotopes of water, for example, d16O/d18O can be used to decide if dissipation (improving/fractionation happens) or transpiration (no fractionation) happens (Costelloe et al., 2008). In Lake Eyre, the water is sodium and chlorine particle commanded with saltiness fluctuating from around 25 300 mg L-1 and 272 800 mg L-1 (Kingsford and Porter, 1993). The nonappearance of spineless creatures and waterbirds in Lake Eyre is believed to be because of saltiness from expanded dissipation amid the dry months (Kingsford and Porter, 1993). This saltiness is likewise said to be in charge of huge fish executes that happen as the lake dries after a surge period (Kingsford and Porter, 1993). Tests taken in the LEB demonstrated that there was more prominent enhancement of the isotopic marks of the surface water than the groundwater tests, a result of high rates of dissipation (Costelloe et al., 2008). The Diamantina River catchment, a noteworthy supporter of streamflow to Lake Eyre, was found to have hypersaline, 85,000 mg L-1 [Cl], leftover pools in the channel, with a profoundly improved isotopic mark, showing dissipation (Costelloe et al., 2008). The Neales River catchment in the LEB exhibited to a great degree saline groundwater (71,000 mg L-1 [Cl]) and hypersaline lingering pools of 130,000-150,000 mg L-1 [Cl] (Costelloe et al., 2008). Optional Salinity Optional saltiness is caused by man rolled out improvements to the hydrological push either through the supplanting of local vegetation with shallow-established vegetation or through the unreasonable utilize or wasteful conveyance of water in water system for agribusiness (Beresford et al., 2001; Rose, 2004). Present day anthropogenic land-utilize rehearses are expanding the territory of salt-influenced arrive, or, in other words ecological issue (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). Evaluations of auxiliary saltiness influencing the globe are recommended at around 74 million hectares, with 43 million hectares of that land happening on flooded land and the rest of the region on non-inundated land (Rose, 2004). In Australia, regions of the Murray Basin and the Mallee area in Victoria (VIC) and New South Wales (NSW) are influenced by dryland and water system saltiness, while water system saltiness impacts the Riverina Plain in VIC and NSW and the Riverland Region in South Australia (Beresford et al., 2001). Dryland Salinity Dryland saltiness is the resultant change in subsurface hydrology in which local vegetation with more profound roots are supplanted by shallow-established vegetation, for example, agrarian yields (Rose, 2004). This procedure causes a diminishing in yearly dissipation and an expansion in the measure of water achieving the water table (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). The procedure ascend in the measure of water accessible would then be able to prompt saline water achieving the dirt surface and vegetation (Rose, 2004). At the point when this saline water meets or achieves the surface, waterlogging and salinization of the surface soil can happen because of the amassing of salts (Rose, 2004). There is an expected slack time of 30 to 50 years between vegetation leeway and the rise of saltiness (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). Around 33% of the regions in Australia that are vulnerable to dryland saltiness are required to end up saline (Figure 2) (Rose, 2004). Dryland saltiness has affected North and South Dakota in Northern America and the Canadian Western Prairies because of extensive scale wheat cultivating in which there is currently expanding loss of profitability and rising passing rates in an assortment of untamed life (Beresford et al., 2001). India, Thailand, Argentina, and South Africa are a portion of alternate nations that experience issues with dryland saltiness (Pannell and Ewing, 2006). Katanning District, WA In the Katanning locale, broad clearing of local vegetation has prompt the region being accounted for as having one of the most noticeably bad saltiness issues in WA (Beresford et al., 2001). The town is situated in a low, level piece of the scene, and is horticulturally fixated on products, for example, wheat and canola, and sheep (Figure 3) (Beresford et al., 2001). The underlying lasting vegetation, for the most part of Mallee affiliations, has been evacuated and supplanted with the previously mentioned products (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). Following 1891, there was expanded wheat development in the region and land clearing (Beresford et al., 2001). In the mid 1900s, the expansion of salt in adjacent characteristic water sources was immediately connected to the clearing of local vegetation (Beresford et al., 2001). In 2000, records of the Katanning Creek Catchment demonstrated that just 1000 hectares of remainder vegetation remained meaning under 10 percent of the catchment being secured (Beresford et al., 2001). It was additionally found in 2000 that 125 hectares of land neighboring the town limit was salt influenced, the water table was short of what one meter from the surface in a few territories and more established framework were indicating proof of salt-actuated rot (Beresford et al., 2001). Groundwater under the township is impacted by the subsurface spill out of catchments where broad land clearing has happened (Beresford et al., 2001). Dryland saltiness in Australia will keep on expanding except if cultivating frameworks are significantly changed on a vast scale (Rose, 2004). Water system Salinity The utilization of water system can expand saltiness levels in soil water, surface water frameworks or potentially aquifers (Van Weert, Van der Gun, and Reckman, 2009). Water system can likewise raise water tables, prompt waterlogging, and cause vanishing specifically from the water table, expanding solute fixation in the dirt (Van Weert, Van der Gun, and Reckman, 2009). Around the globe, most of anthropogenic saltiness is related with watered as opposed to non-inundated land (Bridgman, Dragovish, and Dodson, 2008). A higher measure of land in Australia that is non-watered, as opposed to inundated, in any case, is salt-influenced .>GET ANSWER