a. The original words has been obliterated with a different ink than was used to compose the original. b. The original words has been obliterated by chemical erasures. c. The original writing writing was made with florence ink. d. The original document has been charred or burned.
Today, nonetheless, according to Hansson (2005) games are presumably more open-ended, with many of them encouraging players to take an active role in the construction of the game itself through the use of various ‘mod’ tools. The term ‘mod’ means modification, in videogame terms ‘mod’ refers to a user made add-on to an already existing game. For example, one of 2007’s best selling video games, “The Sims 2” does not determine any explicit goal or winning outcome. Rather, the game presents itself as an open-ended “virtual doll house” in which users play out and share stories with one another should they choose to. As a result of the enormous flexibility of this game, thousands of players’ created content add-ons or game modifications now available for free on the web. “Surprisingly enough, so far, little has been attempted by educators to use the extensive mod tools available for The Sims 2 to implement learning content in a way that naturally integrates with the in-game experience” (Goldfayn, 2006). However, mod tools provide full access to all the language data used in all the different international versions of a game. This allows curriculum designers to easily manipulate popular video games to create opportunities for foreign language learning. Johnson,( 2005, p.191) claims that for most educational disciplines, “the main rule when choosing a video game to be modded is that the closer the original contents of the game are to the educational discipline involved, the smoother the process will be”. Most people play video games nowadays and everyone seems to work on a computer, so learning a foreign language through video games can be as viable as learning it through traditional classroom instruction. For example, in order to make a game like “Civilization III” relevant to a history classroom, one simply needs to edit a few maps, scenarios and variables; while a game like The Sims 2 actually does have a distinct similarity between the contents of the game and the contents of an introductory language textbook (parts of the body, furnishing the house, finding a job/professions, emotions, etc), the fact that almost all games use language in one way or another allows a far wider range of games to be modded for usage in foreign language learning than other educational disciplines. 4. – Modding in ESL There has been a recent increase in the number of game environments or engines that allow users to customize their gaming experiences by building and expanding game behavior. What is described here is the use of modifying, or modding, existing games as a means to learn English. A case of game modding in classroom settings is described to illustrate skills learned by students as a result of modding existing games, in this case the game which was modded is >GET ANSWER