Why is it important to study reflexes? What clinical applications might these have? Describe a simple reflex arc.
A reflex is generally defined as a motor response to a sensory stimulus.Reflexes begin before we are born and help us to make our own way of responses out of mother’s body. It includes several examples of quick reflexes like
*when light shines in eyes, pupils immediately gets smaller and eyes gets closed.
*when a sudden, loud sound is heard sudenly, immedialtely we get startle.
Reflexes are very important and performs many actions to central nervous system.They help us to see, move body, protects us from danger, to sense the touch etc.
Reflex responses are sometimes called fight or flight responses depending on the situations. Reflexes are generally located in lower regions of brain, most in the medulla oblongata and pons. These are involuntary responses and instant.Responses happen automatically depending on reflexes and some refelxes have specofic tasks for a limited period of time.
Once the particular developmenf stage has passed the reflex should integrate and no longer appear.In reality, reflexes are present but its appropriatr function serves as foundation for future reflexes. Example of such type of reflux includes Babinski reflex which is present in feet of newborn.
Clinical applications of reflexes:
- They are most important part of neurological examination and helps to determine the level of damage to central nervous system.
- Reflexes in group can aid in evaluation of most of the segmemtal levels of the nervous system from cerebral hemisphere through the spinal cord.
- All reflexes when reduced to their simplest level, are sensorimotor arcs.
- Many reflexes have several neurons interposed.
- Reflexes are generally graded in quantitative manner.
he phrases fairness, equity, or justice are frequently used interchangeably around the crucial subject matter of public value. when carried out to democratic accountability, the term fairness relates to being responsible for the overall and truthful participation by using all potentially affected stakeholders. It refers to the role of public administers to be accountable for the equitable management, specifically with “a willingness to act in a transparent, honest, and equitable way” (Bovens, 2010: 450). despite the fact that the concept of fairness overlaps considerably with responsiveness and inclusion, it is extra worried with ‘the relative stage of illustration throughout residents’ instead of absolutely the diploma or range of illustration. greater latest literature constitutes the premise for backside-up tactics to equity. fairness emphasizes ‘how similarly’ people need to be represented, while responsiveness and inclusion cognizance on ‘how (responsiveness) and whether or not (inclusion)’ to symbolize from the standpoints of public officers. beneath the reciprocal relations of responsibility among folks who keep others responsible and people held accountable, fairness is typically utilized in holder-oriented contexts, while responsiveness and inclusion are frequently used in holdee-orientated contexts. current research have counseled that backside-up techniques to accountability ought to be considered as means of strengthening “the call for side of excellent governance” (world financial institution et al., 2010: 167). these kinds of together suggest the importance of fairness precept in selling citizen engagement and democratic responsibility. within the all three center values, democratic accountability furnished the inspiration for public directors to symbolize their components. however, as accountability relations go with the flow both upward and outward, resulting in exceptional stages of duty to precise or popular categories of parts, there may be a sure quantity of ambiguity regarding representation. applicable insights can be extracted. First, the conventional view on democratic responsibility has targeted on the supply side of governance—the capacity of governments to be responsible; however, the dominance of this type of top-down approach has these days been puzzled. second, there has been very little discussion at the development of an evaluative framework, which could examine the pleasant of the democratic duty manner. The literature gives the possibility for capacity stakeholders, but it does not specify any information regarding who's tormented by movements or choices taken or made by using public officials. as a result, it seems possibly that the call for aspect of ability stakeholders changed into often neglected. four-2. unnoticed destiny residents it is hardly ever clean precisely (1) whose voices should be represented, and (2) how those voices can be weighted similarly. If an extended-term view is taken, you may without difficulty infer that the demands of lengthy-time period stakeholders had been underestimated. In other phrases, there has been unresponsiveness, exclusion (or constrictiveness), and inequity related to or applied to the voices of future citizens. in addition, the NPM version, with its origins in public-preference concept and managerialism, performs a primary function in solidifying a quick-term orientation and a fairly slim concept of client/purchaser. Any thought paintings at the assumptions of slender self-involved individuals or representatives as best delegates has a tendency to be necessarily tied to “gift-oriented via virtue of its reliance at the demands of current citizens” (Thompson, 2010: four). Lewis (2006: 699) urged dialogue of public interest and “the roster of individuals” to enlarge in scope in terms of time body and range, respectively, and he described the accountability of public administration experts as follows: “(1) to reflect on its many aspects disclosed thru wide illustration and speak, and (2) to engage definitely the obligations and values associated with 4 components of public interest: democracy, mutuality, sustainability, and legacy.” Frederickson (1994: 463) additionally talked about the significance of extending the ethical and moral duty of public officers to future generatio>GET ANSWER