AIM: The goal is for students to conduct scholarly research and increase knowledge and
understanding of one specific research based strategy for improving outcomes for
students with disabilities in mathematics.
Students will write a 7 double-spaced paper to describe the strategy, summarize
research and integrate data to create a convincing argument for the established ‘efficacy’
of the strategy reviewed. The paper will include student’s own position/critique of the
strategy for applicability with students with disabilities. Students will be encouraged to
implement their chosen strategy into their classrooms and reflect on its implementation
and outcomes.
Criteria Maximum

Selection of strategy,
description of strategy
20 points Paper pertains to one specific research
based strategy, with a brief description
of the core features and the purpose of
the strategy (what domain or skills does
the strategy target to improve?)
Research references 30 points Research references are credible (peer
reviewed research articles, or course
text book) and clearly and accurately
cited in the text of the paper.
Adequate description of
research design/methodology
of studies reviewed
(at least 4 specific studies to
be reported)
30 points Description of each study includes
statement of design used, sample,
setting, and other relevant study
procedure/implementation details.
Understanding of evidence
based strategies
50 points Paper reflects high “teacher-asresearcher”
thinking. Demonstrates
knowledge of ‘evidence’ in support of
establishing efficacy of the strategy.
Paper presents clear functional/causal
data to highlight the efficacy of the
strategy, with examples of supporting
empirical data ( e.g. mean scores, PND,
slope analysis, ES) as provided in the
research article.
Summary of research findings
provide clear, convincing
support for the efficacy of the
50 points Results are interpreted sufficiently well
to support an overall efficacy claim for
the strategy.
Refer to some of the key variables
studied by the author(s) and the
findings of the study (e.g. Who was the
strategy most effective for, when and
how was it used, what were the most
important results/desirable outcomes
of the effectiveness of the strategy, what
was the strategy not effective for, what
are the author(s)’ conclusions in
support of the strategy, did they identify
any limitations in the use of the
Scholarly writing and
organization of paper
40 points The information/evidence from the
different studies is seamlessly
integrated in the paper to support the
evidence based strategy and
demonstrate thorough understanding of
the strategy researched; i.e. well
organized for flow of thought and
consistency of information.
Grammatical style, spelling, writing
conventions (use of consistent tense)
are adequate. Quotes and authors are
adequately cited.
Person first terminology is followed and
skills/needs are defined from a
strengths perspective.
Few mechanical errors are acceptable
but please make best effort to see the
journal review samples provided for
depth of ‘research-based’ writing
Connections to field
40 points Integrated connection to field
observations – make thoughtful/
reflective comments on the feasibility/
usefulness of the strategy in a real
classroom/teaching setting.
If strategy was not observe, comment
on how the strategy can be used in the
setting to increase instructional efficacy
at the observation site.
Reference List 40 points References cited in the paper are
included in the reference list and APA
reference style is followed with minor
edits needed.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.