The Moda Reservoir is producing oil and, currently, under waterflooding scheme. Below some data available from this reservoir.
1. Find the saturation functions for both imbibition and drainage processes using:
(a) Johnson Saturation Function
(b) Cuddy et al. Saturation Function
2. Compare the two saturation functions for imbibition and drainage and comment on their accuracies.
3. If we check Leverett and Skelt saturation functions against the given data, which one of the four gives the best fit in estimating reserves?
SW kro kr w plm pcDr 0.06000 1.00000 0.00000 100.000 100.000 0.08000 0.92000 0.00000 49.900 49.000 0.12000 0.77000 0.00001 20.000 33.400 0.14000 0.70000 0.00004 13.800 27.800 0.16000 0.63500 0.00020 9.600 20.800 0.20000 0.51500 0.00100 4.800 18.000 0.24000 0.40700 0.00500 2.200 16.000 0.28000 0.31300 0.02400 0.700 14.100 0.32000 0.22500 0.07000 – 0.100 12.900 0.36000 0.15600 0.10200 – 0.800 12.000 0.40000 0.10000 0.13300 – 1.300 10.100 0.44000 0.05600 0.16500 – 1,800 9.200 0.48000 0.03000 0.19800 – 2.200 8.300 0.52000 0.01580 0.23000 – 2.600 7.500 0.56000 0.00800 0.26400 – 3.000 6.600 0.60000 0.00390 0.30000 – 3.500 6.000 0.64000 0.00190 0.33200 – 4.000 4.800 0.68000 0.00090 0.36400 – 4.600 3.700 0.72000 0.00050 0.39600 – 5.600 2.800 0.76000 0.00020 0.42800 – 7.200 2.100 0.80000 0.00010 0.46000 – 10.000 1.800 0.82000 0 0.47000 – 12.400 1.600 0.84000 0 0.49200 – 40.000 1.200
Fluid Properties (PVT Functions)
Pressure (psi) Bo
Oi I Water
1,000.00000 1.38300 1.00390 0.55000 0.40000 4,000.00000 1.35300 0.99490 0.55000 , 0.40000 7,000.00000 1.32300 0.98590 0.55000 0.40000 10,000.00000 1.29300 0.97690 0.55000 0.40000 13,000.00000 1.26300 0.96790 0.55000 0.40000 Water density (standard conditions) = 1.0 gm/cc Oil density (standard conditions) = 0.95078 gm/cc
Get Your Daily Dose of Chocolate: The Darker, The Better! It has been accounted for that there are sure kinds of microscopic organisms situated inside the human stomach that will really age chocolate into heart-sound, calming mixes. At the 247th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society, facilitated at the Dallas Convention Center this last March, this conclusion was drawn and displayed. Maria Moore - who is shockingly enough, an undergrad understudy taking a shot at this examination - expressed that two distinct kinds of organisms live inside a man's stomach. There are great ones like "Bifidobacterium and lactic corrosive microscopic organisms", which help to separate the chocolate, and after that there's the not very good ones, for example, a few types of Clostridia and E. coli, which have been known to create aggravation, as well as to possibly cause "gas, swelling, looseness of the bowels and clogging". She takes note of that, "When you eat dull chocolate, they [the great microbes] develop and age it, creating intensifies that are mitigating". These specialists from Louisiana State University, drove by John Finley, Ph.D., are the first to direct an investigation about dull chocolate's impacts on the different microorganisms that live inside the stomach. It was said that when the mixes are ingested, they successfully decrease the likelihood of a stroke in later years by reducing cardiovascular tissue aggravation. By testing a sum of 3 unique kinds of cocoa powder in a taunt stomach related tract made out of "altered test tubes" used to emulate ordinary absorption, these scientists, "subjected the non-edible materials to anaerobic aging utilizing human fecal microscopic organisms". The primary fixing in chocolate, - the thing that makes chocolate, chocolate - cocoa powder, contains a wealth of polyphenolic mixes (cell reinforcements) - catechin and epicatechin being two unmistakable cases - and dietary fiber in a moderately little sum, both of which are "ineffectively processed and ingested". Finley at that point clarified that, "In our examination we found that the fiber is matured and the expansive polyphenolic polymers are utilized to littler particles, which are all the more effectively retained. These littler polymers show calming movement". Likewise, polyphenols found in the stomach might be changed over or changed to lessen irritation by consolidating prebiotics and cocoa powder fiber, expanding one's general wellbeing. Prebiotics can be characterized as intricate starches that can't be separated and processed, however the great microscopic organisms in the stomach jump at the chance to "eat" them. Finley at that point went ahead to state that, "When you ingest prebiotics, the helpful gut microbial populace increments and outcompetes any unwanted microorganisms in the gut, similar to those that reason stomach issues". This article finished with a note on how dim chocolate could turn out to be considerably more gainful if joined with things like pomegranate, acai berry or other strong natural products (American Chemical Society, 2014). To the extent how this idea relates to the things that we have discussed in class this previous year, we may need to jump somewhat more profound into the procedure than this article goes. Since we presently can't seem to truly get the hang of anything about physio-science - which is the place a lion's share of these ideas apply - we will need to talk in rather broad terms. Considering the way that the class is named, "General Chemistry", it would appear to be sensible to do only that. First of all, we should consider a lab that was done fairly at an opportune time in the year. While examining dissolvability in class, a lab was done in which a specific arrangement was suspended in a test tube, joined with another arrangement and afterward warmed until the point when a strong was delivered. This procedure shaped something many refer to as an 'encourage'. Hasten is characterize in the word reference as, "to cause (something strong) to wind up isolated from a fluid particularly by a synthetic procedure" (alluding to the methodology) or only as an "a substance encouraged from an answer" (the strong itself) (Merriam-Webster's online lexicon, n.d.). The other idea worth observing is thermodynamics. We have examined Gibbs Free Energy in class these previous couple of weeks. This too assumes a part. A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson, the compilers of Compendium of Chemical Terminology, second ed. (the "Gold Book"), allude to a procedure called Ostwald Ripening - a procedure in which little, strong particles in a fluid compound are removed from arrangement, while the broke down species living outwardly of those bigger particles experience redeposition. This procedure is one of the key basic supporters of processing. Sustenance enters the stomach - which is suspended (permitting the impacts of gravity) - put in an answer of hydrochloric corrosive, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride (gastric corrosive) (Stewart, 1981), warmed by the body, and after that, through Ostwald Ripening, the nourishment turns out as a bigger, "purer/cleaner" (American Chemical Society, 2014), accelerated substance . One reason why this procedure goes over so easily is on account of, "littler particles have a higher surface vitality, thus higher aggregate Gibbs vitality, than bigger particles, offering ascend to an evident higher dissolvability" (McNaught and Wilkinson, 1997). These ideas are vital to observe, concerning the article about how awesome dim chocolate is for a man's general wellbeing, on the grounds that with a specific end goal to see how the chocolate is separated and ingested, there should be an establishment for how the procedure functions by and large. Understanding that the substance will separate in the stomach and the basics for that activity, will open up a superior establishment for somebody to catch what the article was expressing. The specialists reasoned that chocolate contains two ineffectively processed materials. After the concise discourse on what assimilation is, it can established that chocolate has certain substances that can't be hastened. What at that point does the body do with what it can't process, or separate? All things considered, the appropriate response as indicated by the article is that they are "eaten", matured, processed and afterward consumed by microbes. On account of cocoa powder, the results of this procedure have mitigating properties and can lessen the danger of stroke and stomach issues (American Chemical Society, 2014). Despite the fact that all the data on processing was excluded in this article, I figured what they included was adequately assembled, yet as I would see it, to any individual who isn't as of now proficient about the subject in at any rate some limit, would leave the article thinking just, "Sweet, dull chocolate is beneficial for me. I ought to eat a greater amount of it." While this article isn't really advancing such activity, it's not contradicting it either. The data, in any case, is by all accounts equipped towards the individuals who do, indeed, have an effectively settled establishment for this kind of material. I imagined that the article was extremely peruser agreeable and attempted to give anybody sufficiently inquisitive to peruse about it a fundamental outline of the examination, however I was at last left addressing more than I was before understanding it. On account of what I have found out about thermodynamics, dissolvability and precipitation, I need to ponder two or three things. For example, how do great microorganisms "eat" away the intricate sugars and dietary fiber and after that mature it? Is the procedure definitely not quite the same as processing? What kind of warmth is required for that response to happen? I am occupied with how, toward the finish of each procedure - both processing and maturation/utilization - supplements from the substance eaten are ingested. How is the procedure of occasions distinctive for every response? I need to think about how these mixes have calming properties after ingestion. What do those bacterium do to the dull chocolate's segments, and eventually, for what reason isn't the microscopic organisms processed or matured? Does it need to do with what responses happen inside the stomach? That would my best figure. These are for the most part addresses that I ask myself now since general science has shown me a great deal about responses, what will respond, what won't and in what limit. Thus, I am left pondering more about what it is precisely that is occurring in my stomach, when I eat dim chocolate, as well as whenever I place nourishment in my mouth. How does our body know how to process certain sustenances? This idea is extremely intriguing, and I have general science to thank for that.>GET ANSWER