Acme General Contractors is the general contractor for a new 20-story commercial building in downtown Centerville, USA. The building will use a rigid-frame structure and reinforced concrete construction. A major subcontractor on the project who will be performing the roofing and interior insulation and drywall installation has hired you as the safety officer.
- Analyze the hazards associated with the roofing and the interior work. You should identify at least three hazards for each activity.
- Prioritize the need for controls for the hazards that you selected based on the results of the risk assessment.
- Using the hierarchy of engineering controls listed in the attachment, recommend a control method for each hazard that you believe would be the most effective in reducing risk to an acceptable level. Explain why you made the choice, and support your decisions with at least one reference other than the textbook.
- For any fall protection that you recommend, be specific about the type of fall protection needed.
- Discuss how Prevention through Design (PtD) could be used to reduce the risks associated with these operations.
This is also appropriate through Knill’s argument in that policy objectives and instruments are expected to undergo modifications during the implementation process, due to the casual relationship between means and ends that is present in an implementation process, unlike in the PAT where it merely regards the principal and agent to have bureaucratic form-follows-function, causal relationship. Hill & Hupe (2009) adds to the argument that discretion increases meaningfulness, which enhances the agent’s willingness to implement policy, and given that the agents are fairly experienced, they should be allowed professional discretion as a part of their choice and consideration. The PA theory overly regards agents as individuals that seek personal benefit, and does not take into account enough the agents’ expertise (i.e. from local knowledge and experience) that they may utilize to focus on a different aspect of the policy impact, that diverges, or is conflicting, with that of the Principals’. Implementation effectiveness varies across policy sectors; it can be argued how the PAT insufficiently takes into account the capacities of the agents in intervening and criticising their principals through divergence or non-compliance. This adds to how the PAT undermines the agents’ formal expertise and experience, which if continued, could result in these agents’ increasing policy alienation. The PAT’s top-down approach also systematically excludes the situational contexts the divergent agents are faced with on the street-level in times that they are required to make unforeseen decisions on the field. As policy implementation is – and should be – conducted alongside experiential knowledge and expertise in mind; creating, designing and implementing policy should thus be regarded as a bargaining process that both the agent and principal take part in, where utilizing both actors’ expertise will maximise the policy’s impact and outcom>GET ANSWER