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For a sample with M = 80, a score of X = 88 corresponds to z = 2.00. What is the sample standard deviation?
Question 1 options:

2

4

8

16
Question 2 (1 point)

For a population with μ = 80 and σ = 6, what is the z-score corresponding to X = 68?
Question 2 options:

–0.50

–2.00

+2.00

–12.00
Question 3 (1 point)

Last week, Sarah had exams in math and in Spanish. On the math exam, the mean was μ = 30 with σ = 5, and Sarah had a score of X = 45. On the Spanish exam, the mean was μ = 60 with σ = 8, and Sarah had a score of X = 68. For which class should Sara expect the better grade?
Question 3 options:

Math

Spanish

The grades should be the same because the two exam scores are in the same location.

There is not enough information to determine which is the better grade.
Question 4 (1 point)

You have a score of X = 65 on an exam. Which set of parameters would give you the best grade on the exam?
Question 4 options:

μ = 60 and σ = 10

μ = 60 and σ = 5

μ = 70 and σ = 10

μ = 70 and σ = 5
Question 5 (1 point)

For a population with a mean of m = 40, a score of X = 37 corresponds to z = –0.50. The standard deviation for the population is s = 3.
Question 5 options:

True

False
Question 6 (1 point)

Last week Tim got a score of X = 54 on a math exam with μ = 60 and σ = 8. He also got X = 49 on an English exam with μ = 55 and σ = 3, and he got X = 31 on a psychology exam with μ = 37 and σ = 4. For which class should Tim expect the best grade?
Question 6 options:

Math

English

Psychology

All 3 grades should be the same.
Question 7 (1 point)

Last week Sarah had exams in math and in Spanish. On the math exam, the mean was μ = 40 with σ = 5, and Sarah had a score of X = 45. On the Spanish exam, the mean was μ = 60 with σ = 8, and Sarah had a score of X = 68. For which class should Sara expect the better grade?
Question 7 options:

Math

Spanish

The grades should be the same because the two exam scores are in the same location.

There is not enough information to determine which is the better grade.
Question 8 (1 point)

For a population with a standard deviation of σ = 10, what is the z-score corresponding to a score that is 5 points below the mean?
Question 8 options:

z = 0.50

z = 1.00

z = –0.50

z = –1.00
Question 9 (1 point)

For any distribution of scores, the location identified by z = +1 and the location identified by z = –1 are exactly the same distance from the mean.
Question 9 options:

True

False
Question 10 (1 point)

On an exam with s = 6, Tom’s score of X = 54 corresponds to z = –1.00. The mean for the exam must be m = 60.
Question 10 options:

True

False
Question 11 (1 point)

For a sample with a mean of M = 76, a score of X = 72 corresponds to z = –0.50. The sample standard deviation is s = 8.
Question 11 options:

True

False
Question 12 (1 point)

In a population with σ = 8, a score of X = 44 corresponds to a z-score of z = –0.50. What is the population mean?
Question 12 options:

μ = 36

μ = 40

μ = 48

μ = 52
Question 13 (1 point)

In a sample with s = 6, a score of X = 53 corresponds to z = –0.50. The mean for this sample is M = 56.
Question 13 options:

True

False
Question 14 (1 point)

For a sample with a mean of M = 50 and a standard deviation of s = 10, a z-score of z = +2.00 corresponds to X = 70.
Question 14 options:

True

False
Question 15 (1 point)

For a sample with a standard deviation of s = 6, a z-score of z = –1.50 corresponds to a location that is 9 points above the mean.
Question 15 options:

True

False
Question 16 (1 point)

Last week Sarah had exams in math and in Spanish. On the math exam, the mean was μ = 40 with σ = 5, and Sarah had a score of X = 45. On the Spanish exam, the mean was μ = 60 with σ = 8, and Sarah had a score of X = 68. For which class should Sara expect the better grade?
Question 16 options:

Math

Spanish

The grades should be the same because the two exam scores are in the same location.

There is not enough information to determine which is the better grade.
Question 17 (1 point)

For a population with a standard deviation of σ = 6, what is the z-score corresponding to a score that is 12 points above the mean?
Question 17 options:

z = 1

z = 2

z = 6

z = 12
Question 18 (1 point)

A population of scores has μ = 44. In this population, a score of X = 40 corresponds to z = –0.50. What is the population standard deviation?
Question 18 options:

2

4

8

–8
Question 19 (1 point)

For a population with a mean of m = 60 and a standard deviation of s = 8, a score of X = 56 corresponds to z = –0.50.
Question 19 options:

True

False
Question 20 (1 point)

On an exam, Tom scored 12 points above the mean and had a z-score of +2.00. The standard deviation for the set of exam scores must be s = 6.
Question 20 options:

True

False
Question 21 (1 point)

Transforming an entire distribution of scores into z-scores will not change the shape of the distribution.
Question 21 options:

True

False
Question 22 (1 point)

A score that is 6 points above the mean corresponds to a z-score of z = +0.50. For this population, the standard deviation is s = 3.
Question 22 options:

True

False
Question 23 (1 point)

For a population with m = 34, a score of X = 31 corresponds to z = –1.00. The standard deviation for the population is s = 6.
Question 23 options:

True

False
Question 24 (1 point)

A positive z-score always corresponds to a score that is greater than the mean.
Question 24 options:

True

False
Question 25 (1 point)

What z-score corresponds to a score that is above the mean by 2 standard deviations?
Question 25 options:

+2

+10

+20

Impossible to determine without knowing the value of the standard deviation

Sample Solution

#### Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.