Trace the Scientific Method in a Primary Scientific Article
• recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
• weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method.
• Please review one of the provided Science Daily articles and the corresponding peer-reviewed scholarly written article below.
1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. If a hypothesis is stated, please rewrite it IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points)
2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points).
3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). Proper grammar will count for 10 points.
4. Write a paper with title page, introduction, paragraphs addressing the questions, conclusion and references. You must write in your own words and paraphrase information from the selected information sources, addressing each of the questions for your chosen topic. Your paper should consist of less than 10% direct quotes. Your paper should be 500 – 750 words, excluding references and title page. Use APA style for references, see https://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/apa_tutorial.cfm
Article options (choose one): I CHOSE THE BELOW ON MULTIVITAMINS
Multivitamins in pregnancy may be linked to lower autism risk in children
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171004190457.htm. An international research team set out to assess whether nutrient supplementation during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability.
Journal Reference: DeVilbiss, E. A., Magnusson, C., Gardner, R. A.,Rai, D., Newschaffer, C.J. Lyall, K., Dalman, C. Lee, B.K., Antenatal nutritional supplementation and autism spectrum disorders in the Stockholm youth cohort: population based cohort study. BMJ, 2017 Oct 4;359:j4273. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.j4273
Submit in assignment folder by due date stated in the course schedule.
Your paper will be graded based on the following criteria:
Excellent (90 – 100%) Good (75 – 89%) Adequate (50 – 74%) Unacceptable (0-49%)
The Scientific Method
50 points All steps of the scientific method in the provided research study is clearly and accurately identified and described.
45-50 points One of the steps in the scientific method in the provided research study is not described and/or minor issues with clarity and accuracy in identifying and describing the steps of the scientific method.
38-44 points Two of the steps in the scientific method in the provided research study are not described and/or major issues with clarity and accuracy in identifying and describing the steps of the scientific method.
25-37 points Most or all of the steps in the scientific method is not described.
Critique of Research
20 points Clear, accurate, relevant and well organized critique of research, commenting on at least two issues.
18-20 points Minor issues with clarity, accuracy, relevance or organization in critique of research.
15-17 points Major issues with clarity, accuracy, relevance or organization in critique of research, and/or commenting on only one issue.
10-14 points No or minimal critique of research.
Discussion of Relevance
20 points Discussion of the relevance of this research study, both to the world and to you personally, is clear and accurate.
18-20 points Minor issues with clarity or accuracy in the discussion of the relevance of this research study to the world and to you personally.
15-17 points Major issues with clarity and accuracy in the discussion of the relevance of this research study or missing relevance to world or to you personally.
10-14 points No or minimal discussion of relevance to world or you personally.
10 points Fewer than 3 minor spelling/grammatical errors
9-10 points 4-8 spelling/grammatical errors
7-8 points 9-12 spelling/grammatical errors
5-6 point More than 13 spelling /grammatical errors.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.