What mandates or regulations are driving certification and accreditation in your organization or industry? If you are associated with a government agency, discuss the role of certification and accreditation in relation to the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) and the defining roles of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). If you are in the private sector, discuss which regulation your organization must be in compliance with, and how the NIST guidelines might support your efforts. Wk3 The systems inventory process is critical to the success of certification and accreditation. Businesses or govt can run a multitude of different systems. What and how is the best approach to find and located all Information systems, operating systems, internal and external connections in a large scale government information system using automated versus manual methods. Identify any automated software you can locate to assist with system inventory and provide links or urls to the software website for other students to evaluate. Wk4 When talking about the use of contractors and independence of the certifying agent, provide examples on why this is important and conduct a search on any Govt regulations NIST, GAO, IG, DOD, published journals, or textbooks that may provide more details on why the use of independence or contractors is required. Provide all references in your posting. Wk5 In developing a certification test plan, what type of research must be conducted to ensure you cover all aspects of the testing plan? What type of collaboration must take place between the Chief Information Security Officer, System Owners, Management and the Chief Information Officer? Provide examples from your experience where this teamwork was effective, and where lessons may have been learned when it wasn’t. Wk6 Why is certification testing considered the “Crown Jewel” of the certification and accreditation process? Wk7 Is the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) an efficient process in protection of government systems and data? Why or why not? How could it be improved? Wk8 Testing conducted on systems of high national security is performed to ensure that system is protected to the degree required. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automated testing? Is automated testing totally flawless? Should manual testing still be conducted on systems of high national security to eliminate the possibility of certifying a system based on false results?
After the Japanese were defeated in World War II, China promoted political equality with Korea and ethnic minorities. Chiang Kai-Shek hoped that "the Chinese government and people should resolve with noble, sincere, and firm determination never to imitate the way of Japan towards Korea" (405). Chiang believed that China's struggle against Japan would have been worthless if China did not let Korea have its freedom. "All talk of national independence and freedom would be useless" (405) if China mirrored Japan's imperialist policies, Chiang said. After all, "China had been strong for several thousand years without affecting the existence of Korea" and "China's traditional policy has been to aid the weak and to support the falling, to live and to let live" (404). Chiang believed that China should promote equality with other states and ethnic groups instead of subjugating them. He explained that China should "help [these groups] achieve national independence through self-determination, freedom, and equality on the Asian continent in the bright light of total victory" (405). If China wants to become stronger, Chiang explained that it "should accord the large and small ethnic groups inside the provinces legal and political equality" (406). To this effect, Chiang addressed the ethnic minorities in Outer Mongolia and Tibet. Chiang granted the Mongolians independence, because to do otherwise would "tend to increase friction between ethnic groups and jeopardize our entire program of national reconstruction" (405). While Chiang did not give Tibet independence, he expressed hope that if the Tibetans "fulfill the economic requirement for independence" the government would "help them to gain that status" so long as Tibet can "give proof that it can consolidate its independent position and protect its continuity" (406). In the meantime, Tibet was granted "a very high degree of autonomy, to aid its political advancement and improve the living conditions of Tibetans" (406). Such policies remained intact even when Chiang's government was overthrown; the Communist Party has tried to give ethnic minorities equal status, at the very least for maintaining an image of socialism in action. But while the Chinese have fought for democratic equality and individual freedoms, they remain skeptical of "Western-style" democracy. In the article "Defending China's Socialist Democracy," the People's Daily newspaper in 1990 denounced the idea that "the capitalist system is more democratic than the socialist system instead of the other way around" (501). The newspaper explains that American elections are "elections of money" and that "only the rich can afford such huge expenditures" needed to run for office (502). The People's Daily explains that elections are run this way so that "the fundamental interests of the possessing class should be protected or left unharmed" (501). In addition, the article notes that America's "bourgeois democracy" (501) has "trampled upon human rights at home" and "frequently acted as the world military police" (502). Such actions hardly make America "the beacon of the world" (501). The writers most likely drew their negative >GET ANSWER