Each of our sensory systems are constantly picking up stimulus that exists within our environment. When we become exposed to these things, we begin to make connections and learn about our surroundings and our environment. As a result of this learning process, we begin to form memories, which are described as learned information from a single exposure, or from repetition, of experiences (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). According to research there are major subsets of memory, which are sensory memory, working memory, short-term memory, long-term non declarative memory, and long-term declarative memory. Each of these memory types have been shown to involve various systems within the human brain.
Firstly, sensory memories are described as short-lived sensory information. This information is measurable in milliseconds to seconds, and thus is only available for a short period of time after a person is exposed to it (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). For example, all of the sensory information within our environment, including conversations, road noise, birds chirping, and visual stimuli all form sensory memory traces. That being said, this system of memory has a very high capacity for traces. However, these memory traces will not be encoded and stored unless a person utilizes active memory forming resources to do so (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). There are two major types of sensory memories which are echoic memories, for audible stimulus, and iconic memories for visual stimulus. According to research utilizing mismatch field (MMF), a magnetic way to measure event related potential (ERP), these sensory stimuli form MMF responses at high amplitude during initial exposure, but the response quickly levels off after about 10 seconds (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). In other words, unless given proper attention, we will likely not store most of the sensory information we are exposed to.
The second type of memory is short-term memory. This type of memory is categorized by information that is retained from a timespan of seconds to minutes. This increased time over sensory memory means that this memory system has a much smaller, or more limited, capacity (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). According to popular models, such as the Atkinson and Shiffrin’s modal model, short term memory is a stage within the process of storing new memories. Although this model is highly contested, the modal model suggests that sensory information is sent to short-term memory only when it is given direct attention resources. Only after this occurs will the information be rehearsed and sent to long-term memory (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Studying those with deficits within their short-term memory capabilities, researchers have found various brain systems involved in the processing of short-term memory. For example, damage to the left perisylvian cortex has shown to impact tasks which rely on short-term memory, and lesions within the inferior parietal cortex have been shown to impact our ability to utilize and form short-term memories (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).
The next type of memory, a subset of short-term memory, is working memory. Working memory describes a limited storge for the retainment of short-term memory and for performing mental operations on the information that is stored in this repository. In other words, we utilize this information for maintenance, or the retainment of information, and for manipulation, or the process of acting upon this information (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). The information found within working memory involves information we are actively utilizing and can include short-term memory, sensory information, and information pulled form long-term memory, such as memorized statistics. According to research, the typical working memory is limited to seven items (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Based on various studies, researchers believe this type of information is supported via a group of brain areas that support memory systems. For example, patients with damage to the left supramarginal gyrus experience issues with acoustic working information, while damage to the parieto-occipital region of either hemisphere can impact visuospatial short-term memory (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).
Lastly, there is long-term memory, which is information that is retained for long periods of time capable of spanning years (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). This type of memory is divided into subcategories, which are declarative (implicit) and nondeclarative (explicit) memory. Firstly, long-term declarative memory involves episodic memories, which are memories comprised of events that a person has personally experienced, and semantic memory, which is factual knowledge that a person has learned throughout their life. The key to these memory types is the fact that a person is consciously aware of them and able to recall them at will. For example, an episodic memory could involve the who, what, when, and where of a life memory, while semantic memories involve facts you’ve learned such as various state birds (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Utilizing cases such as those presented by patient E.E. who had the majority of his medial temporal lobe removed, researchers have found that the medial temporal lobe is essential for the capacity of declarative memories (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).
The second type of long-term memory are those referred to as non-declarative memories. As the name implies, these memories differ from declarative memories as they cannot be verbally expressed or declared. Instead, these memories are demonstrated through performance (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Non-declarative memories can be further broken down into several examples such as procedural memory and priming. Procedural memory, supported by the basal ganglia, describes memories that are required for tasks such as motor skills, like learning to drive manual car, and cognitive skills, like learning math equations (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018). Priming refers to a person’s ability to change their response to specific stimuli after they have been previously exposed to it. Priming is supported by the core semantic network, which involves the anterior temporal lobe, superior temporal sulcus, and the ventral prefrontal cortex (Gazzaniga, Irvy, & Mangun, 2018).
Introduction Both mental and developmental disorders in childhood, refers to syndromes in neurological, emotional or behavioral development, with serious impact in psychological and social health of children (Nevo & Manassis., 2009). Children who suffer from these types of disorders, they need special support firstly from their close family environment and then from educational systems. In many case, the disorders continue to exist in adulthood (Scott et al., 2016). According to Murray and partners (2012), mental and developmental syndromes in childhood, are an emerging challenge for modern health care systems worldwide. The most common factors that tend to increase such syndromes in low and middle income countries, is the reduced mortality of children under the age of five and the onset of mental and developmental syndromes in adults during their childhood One of the most common mental disorders in children with developmental disorder is anxiety disorder. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, seven types of anxiety disorder are recognized both in childhood and adolescents. Among them are Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The aim of this study is, to present a common mental disorder that affects children with a developmental syndrome. Thus, try to present the clinical features, the prevalence and diagnostic issues in this population. 1. Mental disorders in children World Health Organization (WHO) has identified mental health disorders, as one of the main causes of disability globally (Murray & Lopez., 2002). According to the same source of evidence, childhood is a crucial life stage on the occurrence of mental disorders, which are likely to affect the quality of life, the learning and social level of a child. Within this framework, possible negative experiences at home like family conflicts or bullying incidents at school, may have a damaging effect on the development of children, and also in their core cognitive and emotional skills. Moreover, the socioeconomic conditions within some children grow up can also affects their choices and opportunities in adolescence and adulthood. On the other hand, children’s exposure in risk factors during early life, can significantly affect their mental health, even decades later. The coherences of such exposure can lead on high and periodically increasing rates of mental health, and also behavioral problems. In European Union countries, anxiety and depression syndromes are among top 5 causes of overall disease burden among children and adolescents. But, suicide is the most common cause of death between 10 to19-year-olds, mainly in countries with low- and middle-income and the second cause in high income countries (WHO, 2013-2020). 2. Anxiety disorder in children with neurodevelopmental disorder According to American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013), anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive or improper fear, which is connected with behavioral disorders that impair functional capacity. Furthermore, anxiety is characterized as a common human response in danger or threat and can be highly adaptive in case of elicited in an appropriate context. Is clinically important when anxiety is persistent and associated with impairment in functional capacity, or affects an individuals’ quality of life (Arlond et al., 2003). Especially in childhood, clinical characteristics of anxiety is complicated when complicated by developmental factors, due to the reason that some type of fears maybe characterizes as normative in certain age of groups (Gullone, 2000). Additionally, although a child is able of experiencing the emotional and physiologic components of anxiety at an early age, definite mental abilities may be prerequisites for the full expression of an anxiety disorder (Freeman et al., 2002). Within this framework, Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive and developmental inappropriate anxiety, as a response to separation from the close family environment or from attached figures. The most common symptoms in such disorder are, anticipatory anxiety concerning with separation occasions, determined fears about losing or being separated 2.1. Anxiety disorder prevalence in children Although an essential body of data are available about the epidemiology of anxiety disorders, the evidence for prevalence presented are highly fragmented and the reports for prevalence varies considerably (Baxter et al., 2012). According to global epidemiological data evidence, mental disorders is a difficult task, due to significant absence of officially data for many geographical regions globally. These evidence are less in pediatric patients – children, particularly in low to middle income countries where other concerns are in the front line. The above issue of data absence, is highlighted in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (Whiteford et al., 2013). Childhood mental disorders epidemiologically data, were remain relatively constant during the 21 world regions defined by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. However, these prevalence rates were based on sporadic data, for some disorders or no data for specific disorders in childhood. According to the12-month global prevalence of childhood mental disorders in 2010 is shown that, anxiety disorder rates were higher in adolescents between the age of 15 to 19 years old and especially in females (32,2% general rate, 3,74% in males and 7,02% in females). Moreover The anxiety disorder rates in children between the age of 5 to 9 years old were (5,4%) and 21,8% in children between the age of 10-14. In both groups of children, the percentages of prevalence were higher in females. These systematic reviews were then updated for GBD 2013, were the data for mental disorders in children and adolescents were sparse. This resulted in large uncertainty intervals around burden estimates despite mental disorders being found as the leading cause of disability in those aged under 25 years. Moreover, lack of absence of empirical data restricts the visibility of mental disorders in comparison with other diseases in childhood and makes it difficult to advocate for their inclusion as a priority in health initiatives 2.2. Anxiety disorder clinical features The main clinical features of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is, the inordinate and developmental inappropriate anxiety about separation from the home or from attachment figures. The leading symptoms of that type of mental disorder, refers to anticipatory anxiety regarding separation events, persistent concerns about losing or being separated from an attachment figure, school denial, unwillingness to stay alone in the home, or to sleep alone, recurrent nightmares with a separation theme, and somatic complaints. In particular, the clinical feature of school refusal has been reported to happen in about 75% of children with SAD, and also SAD occurs in 70%to 80% of children presenting with school refusal. In that case, epidemiologic studies exhibit that the rates of prevalence are from 3.5% to 5.1% with a mean age of onset from 4.3 to 8.0 years old (Masi et al., 2001). One area that has attracted considerable attention is the potential link between childhood SAD and panic disorder in adulthood. Indirect support for this hypothesis is provided by retrospective studies of adults with anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the developmental sequel between childhood anxiety disorders and panic disorders in adult age, is also supported by the biologic challenge study, of Pine et al. (2000). Researchers at this study found that, children who suffer from SAD (but not social phobia) they showed respiratory changes during carbon dioxide inhalation that which had common characteristics with adults’ panic attacks. In a similar study, children with SAD and parents who suffer with panic attacks, were found to have significant percentage of atopic disorders, including asthma and allergies (Slattery et al., 2002). On the other hand, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in childhood, is characterized by immoderate worry and stress about daily life events that the child is not able to control effectively. That anxiety is expressed on most days and has a duration for at least 6 months, and also there is an extended distress or difficulty in performing everyday processes (Gale & Millichamp., 2016).>GET ANSWER