Recent advancements in linear accelerator and x-ray collimation technology have given the possibility to
produce photon radiation fields of few millimetres even at very high photon energy. This equipment has
been introduced recently in industry and clinical practice for irradiation of small targets. The use of MV
range photon beams in small target irradiation presents a challenge for a physicist which intends to
measure the dose distribution generated by the beam in water.
Bouchard et al. published in 2015 a remarkable publication where the theoretical concepts associated
with small field dosimetry are discussed and explored.
Using the arguments explained in this publication and in other documents of your selection (please refer
to the documents appropriately), write an essay of 2000 words answering the following questions:
1. When does a field become “small”?
2. What the factors are which make small field dosimetry different from standard field dosimetry?
3. What main parameters or characteristics a detector should have to be used in small field dosimetry?
Part B – case scenario
A 6MV industrial linear accelerator is used to irradiate small objects made of rubber (approximately
water equivalent) for sterilisation purposes. The nominal target dose distribution is 100 Gy delivered to
a sphere of 1cm diameter at 2 cm depth. The objects are rotated 360 degree to be uniformly irradiated.
The beam is 1×1 cm2 of area at isocentre and the only accessible point of measurement is at a depth of 2
cm inside the object. The physicist in charge of verifying the dose delivered to these objects has to
provide the value in real-time and has the following dosimeters available:
a. Ionisation Chamber CC013 from PTW
b. TLD carbon loaded 2x2mm2
c. Stereotactic diode EDGE from Sun Nuclear
d. PinPoint Ionisation Chamber 31014 from PTW
e. Microdiamond from PTW
Write a 1000 words essay to motivate your choice with the aim of theory, knowledge of the detectors’
working principles and drawings.
Senate's Woman of Steel for President All individuals are regarded to be potential pioneers. In any case, just a couple of accomplish the critical prerequisites requested to adequately lead. The ability to head is either connatural or created. Everyone perceives that driving a nation is extensively one of the hardest responsibility. A typical request of the lion's share incorporates the data of what he or she will achieve, the focal points to them and the likely results of the pioneer's restricted term. The leader of the nation has the ability to manage, in this manner it is his or her obligation to utilize it pertinently honorably with legitimate purposes. Notwithstanding that, a considered occasion of his or her activity is to ensure the wellbeing and stable way of life of his or her kindred kinsmen. No individual is seen to be idiot proof; subsequently, flawless theoretical portrayals ought not be the entire premise in choosing a pioneer. In any case, he or she is dared to limit inconsiderateness and silly blunders. Superbly, the president's obligation is to get noteworthy improvement in each angle for the nation. A decent pioneer is induced by moving vision accomplishment for the nation. He or she is propelled to execute brilliant errands that will adapt to his or her nation's confinements. A powerful pioneer doesn't simply bully, yet in addition hears the voices of his or her kindred compatriots. He or she grows great correspondence between him or her and them. Being idealistic isn't just a great factor; additionally, it must be joined with being practical so it would deliver significant and striking advancement in the nation. A viable pioneer is both a basic and inventive mastermind that surfaces with noteworthy resolutions to numerous issues. A genuine pioneer buckles down as a result of his or her certifiable enthusiasm for work. Above all, the pioneer has faith in his or her nation and constitution. On the up and coming races on 2016, the Filipino voters must settle on a ponder choice. Fundamentally, the voters' overwhelming decision will decide the destiny of the nation. As altogether looked into and watched, the person who merits the position the most to be allowed by the Filipino nationals' voting power on the following decision is Miriam Defensor– Santiago since she noticeably shows sense of duty regarding open administration in a way that she nurtures youth and lady, battles debasement, is the Senate's best entertainer as far as bills and resolutions documented, boldly legitimizes her judgements through trials, and all around experienced in the field of legislative issues. In spite of being known as the Iron Lady of Asia as per the Asia Magazine, Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago has her delicate heart and sensitivity to the kids and ladies. Beside being a congressperson she is additionally a lady and a mother, and she comprehends the necessities of youngsters and ladies. As a mother, she officially experienced of losing a youngster and she considers that kids require security. In accordance with this, she recorded a Senate Bill No. 2446 or the Children's Emergency Relief and Protection Act to organize and offer consideration regarding the security of youngsters influenced by catastrophic events. Santiago stated, "Youngsters are the most defenseless in the midst of catastrophe. They are at higher danger of illness, manhandle, and misuse. . . ." (Miriam Defensor-Santiago, n.d) Another bill concerning kids is the Senate Bill No. 2455 Special Protection of Children against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act which she recorded on November 2014. It intends to ensure kids against any misuse and segregation that they are presented to. She additionally ensures the privileges of ladies by a co-composing R.A. No. 9710 or the Magna Carta for Women. It passes on a system of rights for ladies construct specifically with respect to universal law. The distinctive highlights of the law includes act that spotlights on the human rights and resisting sexual orientation victimization ladies. It looks to take out segregation through the acknowledgment, assurance, satisfaction and advancement of the privileges of Filipino ladies, particularly those having a place in the minimized divisions of the general public. (Philippine Commission on Women, n.d) She additionally underpins political interest of youngsters in the nation. Oxfam characterized activism as the Youth cooperation advances the community and political existence of youngsters. As per Santiago in her inaugural discourse for general society discussion at the Leong Hall, Ateneo de Manila University, youth cooperation advances the municipal and political existence of youngsters. In nation like Philippines whose defilement is all finished, there is as yet a legislator who is sincerely serving the nation and proceeding in battling debasement. She is Miriam Defensor Santiago who has the asked to question defilement. One of the greatest wellsprings of defilement is the control of the proposed spending plan, and as an aficionado of battling debasement she observed the best possible appropriation of nation's financial plan. The House of Representatives endorsed on second perusing the proposed P2.606 trillion national spending plan for 2015. As indicated by Santiago this proposed spending plan is unlawful and sketchy. In a benefit discourse she expressed that the 2015 spending which contains two risky minefields prompting defilement, isn't what individuals expect it is the thing that organization competitors anticipate. She additionally called it as a 'race spending plan'. (Miriam Defensor-Santiago, n.d) When she saw something incorrectly on the appropriation the national spending she instantly acts to sell the beginning stage of debasement. One confirmation of this is the point at which she instantly requires a determination requiring an examination with respect to the reports that the Philippine Postal Corp. (Philpost) has accumulatedP5 billion in agitated loans from the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Another fortunate thing about Miriam Santiago is that she isn't apprehensive about addressing officers even it is higher than her. Regarding the defilement embarrassment of Vice President Jejomar Binay, Miriam-Defensor Santiago said that banks ought to be required to uncovered fakers. Santiago has documented Senate Bill No. 2438, ordering banks to work on observing of records valuably possessed by politically uncovered people. Santiago's bill gives that at account opening, banks ought to expect clients to finish a composed and marked affirmation recognizing themselves, the lawful substance for which the individual is opening the record, and any helpful proprietors related with the lawful element. Banks ought to likewise be required to attempt measures to forestall tax evasion of sick gotten riches by degenerate government authorities and their fakers. Encompassed by legislator who is being visually impaired by cash, Miriam Defensor Santiago still holds her honesty of not tolerating influence from anybody. This was demonstrated when she restored the P250,000 money blessing given to her by Juan Ponce Enrile, who was then the Senate president. Santiago additionally uncovered that over the P250,000 money blessing from Enrile, the majority of the congresspersons were likewise given P1.6 million from the reserve funds of the Senate (Sy, 2013). Miriam Defensor Santiago amazed the group and journalists when she reported that she is experiencing Stage 4 lung disease. Regardless of being sick, Miriam-Defensor Santiago figured out how to be the best positioning congressperson as far as the quantity of bills and resolutions documented since the beginning of the sixteenth Congress. She didn't let her disorder prevents her from serving the nation. In light of the Senate administrative bills and list benefit, Santiago recorded the most number of bills at 437, 436 of which she was the main creator. She likewise documented 181 resolutions, 179 of which were presented by her. In November 18, 2014, she documented the Senate Bill No. 2457 Newborn Infant Safe Haven Act. It is a demonstration giving place of refuge to surrendered babies. Another is she recorded a bill about Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Disclosure Act. It is about security the general wellbeing by requiring tobacco makers to uncover data on fixings and constituents in tobacco items. Miriam Defensor-Santiago unequivocally legitimizes her judgements in light of certainties and experience through trials. She heard real cases in criminal and common law and took care of exceptional procedures. In any given week, she may hear criminal cases extending from terrible checks through medication managing, burglary, assault, and kill, and common suits including reception, probate, or expansive claims between contending agents. The Philippine legal framework takes after the European framework in shunning jury trials: the judge decides blame or honesty and dispenses sentences. The individuals who endeavored to fix her, she undermined with references for disdain of court. To make the point, she sent some quickly to imprison, requesting them discharged, soothed however shaken, presently. She reprimanded her staff against tolerating or sending to her any blessings from invested individuals. In a strategy manual she composed, now utilized generally by different judges, she expressed: "The main govern of this court is no rewards, no coercion." To a judge who sent her spontaneous exhortation around one of her cases, she answered through his envoy that, "on the off chance that he needs to choose my case, at that point I should find a way to have the case exchanged to him." Rebuffing impacts from all sides, Defensor-Santiago in the long run communicated as the need should arise. Following a half year individuals quit attempting to impact her choices (Santiago, Miriam Defensor, 2012). Miriam Defensor-Santiago is very much experienced in the field of legislative issues. Other than from being a congressperson of the Philippines from 1995-2016, she likewise turned into the Chair of Presidential Agrarian Reform Council Executive Committee, and Commissioner of Immigration and Deportation, Presiding Judge at the Regional Trial Court (Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago, n.d.). Santiago (2012) depicted the issue with Philippine races at the Far Eastern University Central Student Organi>GET ANSWER