1- Write a report on the evolution of programming languages. Pick one of your favorite programming language and evaluate it against other popular programming languages of the time. Your evaluation metrics should be based on readability, writability, reliability and cost. You can also include more metrics such as generality, efficiency and portability etc. The report should include: a. History of popular languages b. Evolution of popular languages c. Your evaluation matrix d. Evaluation of your chosen language based on evaluation metrics You can include code samples, graphical representations and other convincing means to defend your choice of language.
2- What is left factoring ? explain the limitation of left factoring? 3- LL parsers: for the following grammar S —> Ab$ A —> (bAb) A —> (Ab) a. Find first and follow b. Construct LL(1) parse table based on your predict sets c. Is this an LL(1) grammar? Why or why not?
4- Show a complete LR(0) parse, including the canonical collection of LR(0), parsing table and parse stack contents for the input string id * (id + id), using the following grammar E–>E+TIT T—>T*FIF F —> ( E ) l id
5- Show that the following grammar is SLR(1) but not LL(1) S–>SAIA A –> a
6- For the following given grammar : E—>(E+E)Ix
a. Draw canonical function of LR(0) b. Draw the LR(0) parsing table c. Check weather the input string ( ( x + x) + x ) generate by this grammar or not.
7- What are the motivations to use concurrent machines?
8- Define the following terms: a. Task, describe the five different states in which a task can be. b. synchronization c. competition and cooperation synchronization, d. liveness e. deadlock.
9- Define semaphore, then explain the following a. Counting semaphore b. Guard in a semaphore c. Binary semaphore
10- What does the following Java methods do: a. Yield b. Join c. Sleep
11- Describe the actions of the three Java methods (wait, notify, and notifyAll) that are used to support cooperation synchronization.
12- How is deadlock related to liveness?
13- Suppose two tasks, A and B, must use the shared variable Buf_Size. Task A adds 2 to Buf_Size and task B subtracts 1 from it. Assume that such arithmetic operations are done by the three-step process of fetching the current value, performing the arithmetic, and putting the new value back. In the absence of competition synchronization, what sequences of events are possible and what values result from these operations? Assume that the initial value of Buf_Size is 6.
14- Program question: Define semaphores in Ada and use them to provide both cooperation and competition synchronization in the shared-buffer.
15- Program question: The reader-writer problem can be stated as follows: A shared memory location can be concurrently read by any number of tasks, but when a task must write to the shared memory location, it must have exclusive access. Write a Java program for the reader-writer problem.
16- Generate code for simple languages and protocols using Lex and Yacc tools. a. Explain the steps of designing your code. b. Check the validity of your code specifications c. Attach your codes and screenshots of the results
Authoritative Decision Making Approaches Distributed: first February, 2018 Last Edited: first February, 2018 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert paper essayists. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any sentiments, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. Presentation The primary focal point of this paper is about various methodologies in settling on choices in a business or organization. Taken after by understanding into the way toward settling on choice, and some persuasive components. At long last, an evaluation of chief ways to deal with hazard and vulnerability in basic leadership is incorporated as well. Basic leadership approachs The writing is wealthy in speculations with respect to basic leadership. Three fundamental hypotheses will be talked about and clarified . they are: the levelheaded approach, naturalistic approach, and numerous points of view approach. The discerning methodology. In this hypothesis the administrator is relied upon to be completely mindful about the entire circumstance before taking choice and in the meantime to be reasonable (Turpin and Marais 2006). There are couple of components must be accessible to encourage the balanced basic leadership process (Turpin and Marais 2006). These components are given by Simon ( 1997) : Knowledge : picking the correct minute to take a choice. Configuration: making, completing, and profound examining for all activities potential outcomes. Choosing : picking one decision from every accessible decision. Investigating : dissecting conceivable outcomes of the picked course. (Simon 1960). In run of the mill objectivity, it is normal that the chief knows about every single conceivable decision, results, have clear vision and approach in organizing the results, and have the capacity to analyze the results and choosing the best (Kreitner, Kinicki et al. 2001). Amid the decision procedure, every probability is connected to numerical esteem and the likelihood with the most astounding quality is resolved to be the best decision (Turpin and Marais 2006). Naturalistic basic leadership approach The idea of this hypothesis is to place everything in its normal setting before comprehension and examining anything (Turpin and Marais 2006). What makes this hypothesis exceptional from comparable expressive methodologies is its experimental foundation (Turpin and Marais 2006). Acknowledgment – Primed Decision (RPD) (Klein 1998) approach is the most recent refresh of this hypothesis. The RPD has been presented by Gary Klein. He examined around six hundreds choices taken in basic circumstances by customary and specific individuals like specialists, military officers and so on.. (Turpin and Marais 2006). IN RPD, encounters assumes significant part and the circumstance assessment capacity increments with the more experience the chief gangs (Klein 1998). In view of his own past experience the leader can evaluate the circumstance and what heading thing can take and after that figures out which decision to take. Once the arrangement has been actualized and things take new course , the leader could gather new data and adjust his choice (Turpin and Marais 2006). various points of view approach this approach has been exhibited by Mitroff and Linstone (1993) as an endeavor to ponder an issue from every single accessible viewpoint (Mitroff and Linstone 1993). This approach has utilized Singer and Churchman's (1971) thought of unbounded frameworks considering, which considers any contention isn't detached from some other clashes (Churchman 1971, Turpin and Marais 2006). Points of view in this approach are being ordered into three primary zones. These zones are: specialized, individual, and authoritative (Turpin and Marais 2006). Specialized alludes to data gathering process keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend the framework (Turpin and Marais 2006). Albeit a few activities could be viewed as sane or target supposition of the circumstance, assortment of specialized points of view could be gotten because of various examiners (Turpin and Marais 2006). In this manner, it is very prescribed to create and produce a few specialized points of view of a framework. Investigating of real key-players and partner to most extreme point of confinement is required to ensure a far reaching scope of all conceivable authoritative and individual angles or viewpoints (Turpin and Marais 2006). Regardless of a few choices gives off an impression of being as splendid and radiant choices , morally these choices are not acknowledged. Subsequently, notwithstanding three classifications specified above, moral points of view ought to be constantly computed (Mitroff and Linstone 1993). Basic leadership process inside and out Basic leadership process is a recipe made out of two stages. The primary stage is or far reaching and the second is merged (Russo and Schoemaker 2002). The principal stage centers around social event and concentrate every single conceivable choice. The second stage is tied in with wiping out a few decisions and thinking of one official choice (Russo and Schoemaker 2002, Turpin and Marais 2006). Chiefs ordinarily the take after a few distinct methodologies. For instance, making a few groups; inside the organization; with various ways to deal with arrange and impart , and think of conceivable arrangements. Another methodology is instinctive (Turpin and Marais 2006). Is this situation, the subliminal assumes imperative part in the creating of a few arrangements. There are a few likenesses between the far reaching stage and the plan period of the balanced model of Simon's (1977) and Mitrov and Linstones (1993) model of different points of view style (Turpin and Marais 2006). In the dissimilar stage there are two conceivable situations. The first is the point at which the individual who will take the choice is hesitant and does not have the definitiveness or enough mettle to live with vulnerabilities of his choice. At that point the stage will be put on hold to the latest possible time. The second situation is the point at which the leader is sufficiently sure the united stage won't take long time and the choice is gone up against the spot. Be that as it may, there is imperative factor in the concurrent stage which is the adjust factor. The adjust factor intends to be prepared to get and act as needs be to any new data. These data probably won't postpone the speed of settling on the choice essentially, regardless of whether they could impact it. Then again , in specific circumstances the adjust factor may cause some unsettling influence in the united factor and lead the chief back to the broad stage once more. The basic leadership process is affected by numerous factors. For instance , the refinement of the contention, restricted time accessible, and encompassing condition (Turpin and Marais 2006). For example, in powerful and constantly changing condition such business the exploratory and joined stages may be crushed into one stage because of as far as possible. Basic leadership powerful factors These variables are as take after (Turpin and Marais 2006): full and far reaching assessment of the circumstance understanding the circumstance and putting everything thing in its unique situation. Arranging organization forms into set up structures, and energy about the esteem frameworks of individuals. Exhibiting information Over-burdening any chief with data could bring about putting him/her in disorder. Successful arranging in of the data in exquisite style could spare the leader time and attach the procedure . Executing innovation These days, innovation gives valuable instruments that can lead straight to the point and aides in breaking down the circumstance. Administrative Decision Making Under Risk and Uncertainty Hazard in definition is a ( danger to success)(Chapman and Ward 2007). Hazard significance originates from the reality it is indivisible piece of any task or marketable strategy and can be either positive or negative (March and Shapira 1987, RIPLOVÁ 2007) . While negative hazard mean too low possibilities in progress, positive hazard levels with awesome shots in getting victories. Hazard administration principle obligation is to diminish chance potential outcomes in any venture or marketable strategy through fundamental approach (RIPLOVÁ 2007). Demeanors to hazard Demeanors to hazard can be characterized into three regions. These states of mind are nonpartisan, for, and overter (Boehlje and Eidman 1984). Loath hazard individual likes to lose some conceivable income or pick up with a specific end goal to decrease chance probabilities. Then again, Risk pron-individual has the state of mind of tolerating higher hazard potential to increase additional. The hazard impartial individual has one principle target or objective which isn't to make tremendous result, however to set up maintainable pick up on the long run. This individual does not have that much stress over colossal misfortunes as long he is getting what he needs (Kaan 2002). to accomplish fruitful choice arranging and settling on , the chief must comprehend his own hazard mentality and use it along different capacities he has (Kaan 2002).>GET ANSWER