Have you ever been the subject of a stereotype? Describe this experience, using a specific incident: what was the stereotype? what do you think was the basis of the stereotype (your nationality, hair color, regional background, etc.)? What do you think is the source of this stereotype (mass media, historical forces, demographic characteristics of the group, cultural misunderstanding, etc.)? Did it impact how you were treated? What if anything did you do to counter this stereotype? How significant is this stereotype in your life (e.g. stereotyping about being in a sorority may end once you graduate vs ethnic stereotyping which may last a lifetime)? Can you think of other stereotypes that might affect other individuals in more negative ways?
know is that Descartes does not just randomly doubt everything. He provides very concrete reasons for the things that he doubts. As he sets up this doubt he has to be very rational about it. If he does not then his argument is not going to work. The KK thesis that Descartes uses is to show how these arguments work. The KK thesis follows: if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p. basically this means that if I know that there is snow outside then I know that I know that there is snow outside. The problem with this argument is that if we are not sure about our senses then there is no way that we can be sure about the knowledge that we possess. In making this thesis work one must have a strong understanding of what “knowing” really means. But there is no way that one can actually have this understanding. One must have self-knowledge or basically one must really know himself/herself. Therefore if you do not have that notion of self then you do not possess any knowledge. As we can see the KK thesis works in favour with what Descartes is saying in all of his arguments. The only problem is that he does not believe that his argument about God is that strong. He feels that if there is an Omnipotent God then there is no way that he could ever deceive us. There is no way that he could be all knowing and make us doubt the things that we do. On the other hand there is no way that there could be no God because our senses had to be created by someone. Therefore there must have been an evil demon that has deceived us. But since he doubts everything then he is not mislead into the false believing of a demon. So, in a later meditation he proves that there is a God and that he is not a deceiver. We turn to Liebniz and we continue to see the world slipping away as he discusses the monad. In looking at the things that Liebniz said it is believed that monads (Entelechy) are not physical or mental but biological. Therefore, the ultimate cogs of the world are biological elements or Entelechies. In doing this there is no distinction made between inanimate and animate objects, which would make everything, animate. If these monads are really just biological there is no way that they can make changes in each other. The only way for this to happen is if God caused these changes to happen. The reason that monads cannot bring changes in bodies is because that is not what they were programmed to do. They were created so that compound substances could be made. The biological nature of Monads makes their essential qualities to be apperception and appetition and even motion itself. Their relation is more of a final cause than an efficient cause. This is why he considers final causes as the principle of efficient causes and gives priority to final causes. Therefore, this made it hard for a monad to bring change in a body. As we can see, God is the unifier of the monads but he also brings harmony. Leibniz came to the conclusion, by using metaphysics and the nature of monads, that God was the ultimate monad and the Creator of this world. We are now at a point where nothing is the same. We believed in one thing but now it is completely different. The first problem that Berkeley would have with this objection is the fact that ideas cannot exist if they are not perceived. If we cannot perceive of the idea then >GET ANSWER