Steven Pinker argues that violence – including war – has declined significantly over human history. He supports this argument by showing that we no longer morally or legally tolerate public torture, massacres, slavery and other forms of brutal violence. In fact, he writes that the “decline of violence may be the most significant and least appreciated development in the history of our species.”
Do you agree with what he writes? Disagree? Explain your answer briefly, but be as clear and specific as possible.
theories, giving us insight on what discourse is, how it differs from simple language, and how discourse could be used in varying situations. Foucault was especially concerned with how knowledge is produced, and how we can put knowledge into practice through discourse, especially in institutional settings. He was principally interested in the relationship between knowledge and power, and how they relate to one another. He observed how power was exercised in institutional “apparatus” (referring to various institutional, or physical mechanisms and structures maintaining the exercise of power within social bodies), and what its techniques and tactics were. This is a contrast to Marxists who see power in terms of the state apparatus. Foucault strongly opposed Marx’s theory of ideology, since it was very much reduced to the idea of class. Equally, he also opposes ideology due to the fact that this concept always stands against something that is meant to technically count as “truth.” Marx stated, “in every epoch, the ideas are the ideas of the ruling class.” Thus, Marxist thought generally looks to unravel this ‘ideological layer’ in order to find truth, which is the conflictual relationship between the public and the bourgeoisie. Foucault stated that, rather than ideologies, he is interested in how “effects of truth” are produced within discourses – of which are neither false nor true. Hall then goes on to distinguish Foucault’s theory on discourse, power, and knowledge from the Marxist theory of class distortion and ideology. Foucault essentially had two main propositions. Firstly, he wanted to demonstrate that knowledge has the power to show the truth or make something true. This also means that knowledge and power are always inextricably linked. Foucault gives an example by relating this particular concept to criminals. This had had effects for both the criminal and the punisher and has been used historically in prison regimes. Moreover, Foucault also created a new notion of power itself. Power is usually always seen >GET ANSWER