One of the strengths from the HSINT enterprise is the current policies in place since September 11, 2001 (9/11). In the Michael Beshears (2016) article, Beshears quotes Willard Oliver (2009) stating, “Since the terrorist attack of 9/11, federal, state and local governments have increasingly moved toward establishing homeland security as an institutional response to not only the threat of future terrorist attacks, but as a means of preparing and responding to natural disasters. The state level is assigned to lead the role in homeland security by bringing together the public security, law enforcement, and emergency response capabilities (Steiner, 2009). Another strength is the intelligence led policing as it focuses on working with the public.
Limitations of Distributed HSINT
Limitations that exist include the information sharing between the levels in the HSINT. Fusion centers need a defined existence and proper procedures on how to communicate and transmit data effectively. The development of fusion centers was an initiative undertaken at the sub-federal level. The inability to effectively share information and sustain proper communication, results in further procedure integration to sustain longevity of the fusion centers (Burch, 2008). Not knowing what type of information to share and with who, hinders the effectiveness of the HSINT.
The department of homeland security must assign one agency as the primary agency for the intelligence community. “The lack of a leading agency is reflected in the fact that Department of Justice (DOJ), DHS, and FBI have each issued training guidelines; they are very similar, but the issuance of three almost identical but separate guidelines raises the question: why not just have one set created by one body overseeing the intelligence community” (Bjelopera, 2014, p. 28). Additionally, without a primary agency it is challenging to supervise the levels of federal funding dedicated to the intelligence community (Bjelopera, 2014). In addition, proper funding from the federal level needs improving. Funding is being reduced, and in some cases withdrawn, for most agencies in the homeland security enterprise which represents collaboration that much more difficult to accomplish (Minks, 2018). Increasing funding and offering an incentive to improve and foster the interagency collaboration strategically to benefit all parties involved.
Local Fusion Center
The closest local fusion center to me is the Central Florida Intelligence Exchange, which is an all crimes/all hazards fusion center. The mission is
To protect the citizens and visitors of Central Florida by providing information and knowledge, in the form of actionable intelligence, to policy and decision makers. The Central Florida Intelligence Exchange will collect, analyze, produce and disseminate intelligence in order to support regional efforts to detect, deter, disrupt, and deny terrorist and/or criminal activity (CFIX, n.d., para 2).
This group of organizations comprise of 9 county sheriff’s offices, Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Orange County Corrections, Florida Highway Patrol, and Municipalities in Region five. The federal organizations include Federal Bureau of Investigators (FBI), DHS, Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and Transportation Security Administration (TSA). This fusion center is located in Orlando, FL where there is on-site staffing from multiple local, state, and federal agencies.
This fusion center, I have a friend who was a representative of Seminole County for the fusion center. This fusion center does do all crimes/hazards. One case I remember from my friend that they discovered a money laundering ring that he went down to South America to investigate. That is all the details I received from him, but it was interesting in some of the information he was able to share with me. He is no longer part of the group, as he accepted a promotion with his department to get back on the road.
Beshears, M. (2016, August 30). Intelligence Led Policing: Preferred Policing Model in the War
Against Terrorism. Retrieved from https://inpublicsafety.com/2016/04/intelligence-le…
Bjelopera, J. (2014). Countering Violent Extremism in the United States . Congressional
Research Service. Retrieved from https://libertyunderattack.com/wp-content/uploads/…
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security Affairs,2, 1-24. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Jennifer/Dropbox/Jen & Chris Stuff/Chris/Master’s/INTL6131/Week2/supplement.2.2.pdf.
CFIX. (n.d.). Welcome to the Central Florida Intelligence Exchange. Retrieved from https://cfix.ocso.com/
Mink, C. (2018). Hacking The Silos: Eliminating Information Barriers Between Public Health
and Law Enforcement. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1052792….
Steiner, J. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from
Section One: History and Background The United Nations characterizes dealing in people as the enrollment, transport, move, harboring or getting of people by wrong implies, (for example, power, snatching, extortion or intimidation) for an unseemly reason, including constrained work. Dealing in individuals is otherwise called advanced subjection (Bakirci, 2009). Individuals are to a great extent deprived of their nobility and human rights. Individuals are compelled to move crosswise over fringes for sex work or youngsters are snuck for modest business or compelled to work for almost no cash as household help. It used to be a much-concealed wrongdoing and the consideration of law authorization and human rights laborers has quite recently as of late been given. Dealing as a rule happens in poor and broken conditions, where exploiters come and exploit their circumstance. Numerous ladies stay uneducated because of poor conditions and the main alternative during troublesome occasions is to offer their bodies to support their families. Unfortunate casualties are normally given extraordinary guarantees and venture out from home and fall into hardship as a result of franticness. Now and then guardians sell their youngsters for obligation reimbursement (Williams, 2018). Basically young ladies between the ages of 10 and 35 are offered to whorehouse proprietors, these sorts of things should happen more in the nations of the Third World, for example, India, Bangladesh, Africa, Kenya and Pakistan; however this isn't correct around the world. Dealing in people is the third most unlawful venture after the clearance of medications and arms and todays most productive global wrongdoing with offers of 7 to 12 billion dollars. The clearance of people is one of the most despicable wrongdoings with yearly numbers evaluated by the State Department of 600,000 and 800,000 (Feingold, 2005). The extension and size of dealing is difficult to evaluate in light of the fact that the wrongdoing is generally done covertly and will in general be concealed even from the police. It is accepted that the numbers are much higher than detailed due to the mystery. Enough data is accessible to affirm that on a day by day and overall premise men, ladies and youngsters become defenseless casualties of this wrongdoing. Numerous variables adding to this wide-running, secretive issue felt all through the word incorporate; monetary and political shakiness, monstrous worldwide destitution and the disappointment of individual gatherings. Singular inspiration to participate in a worthwhile criminal venture combined with the powerlessness of law requirement to recognize unfortunate casualties and guilty parties make dealing alluring to culprits who consider tax exempt prizes and the probability of dread. The reason for this examination paper is to display a background marked by dealing in individuals and to talk about manners by which unfortunate casualties are enlisted to oppress and sell individuals (Zimmerman and Kiss, 2017). The Mediterranean area is known as the world 's origin. History specialists and anthropologists concur that from this district all development developed. Early life records in the Mediterranean shows servitude. Families would offer undesirable relatives to dealers to gain money related ground. Slaves were likewise shaped during the war between clans. The lost clan would accept ladies and youngsters as slaves. Once in a while poor families relocate to different nations as a result of yearning or sickness. In their new country, such families have frequently moved toward becoming slaves. This proof can likewise be seen in scriptural records. In Genesis section 37, subjection is first referenced in the tale of Joseph and his siblings. Joseph was one of Israel's twelve children. His mom was his dad's preferred spouse, and he was in this way a reasonable most loved of his dad. This irritated Joseph's siblings. The siblings of Joseph loathed him so much they needed to murder him. They chose to offer him to voyaging brokers as opposed to executing him. The tale of Joseph isn't the main notice in the authoritative handbook for servitude. The Bible recounts a few times when the entire country of Israel lived as slaves. It additionally gave principles and guidelines concerning how the Israelites were to locate their own slaves. Departure Chapter 1 recounts to the narrative of the imprisonment of the country of Israel in Egypt. The Egyptians have accepted the entire country as slaves since they were outsiders in the nation. While living as slaves, the Israelites experienced their proprietors a great deal of maltreatment. The law of Moses in the Old Testament manages the standards concerning slave possession. One of the most clear refrains is in the New International Version of Leviticus 25:44. This section portrayed the principles for the Israelites ' buy of slaves. It says, " Your male and female slaves must originate from the countries around you; you can purchase slaves from them. " found that servitude was not just lawful from the beginning of time, it was a key component of society. Servitude was vital to the development of countries in horticulture and engineering. Slaves had to perform difficult assignments that common individuals were reluctant to perform. Slaves achieved social change, as well. At the point when individuals were exchanged from different nations, they carried their otherworldly and social customs with them. These customs have been woven into the way of life of the country (Zimmerman and Kiss, 2017). In spite of the fact that servitude was a fundamental piece of country development and advancement, it was a dull practice. Slave proprietors have acted in shocking approaches to follow their slaves. Slaves wound up ravenous, beaten and assaulted. With an end goal to guarantee the subjugation of the entire family, spouses were avoided their wives and youngsters. The Israelites just varied modestly from the countries around them. The country had severe standards to accept individual Israelites as slaves, however the guidelines for excused detainees were looser. Moses law approved the beating of slaves. Mass migration 21:20 – 21, New International Version states, " Anyone who beats his male slave with a bar must be rebuffed if the slave kicks the bucket as an immediate outcome, however not rebuffed if the slave recuperates following a day or two, on the grounds that the slave is his property (Kempadoo, 2016). " It has proceeded since forever in the midst of quick development. The absolute most normally realized slave exchange happened in the frontier time frame, when Europeans went to the Americas. Slaves have turned into the establishment of the American settlements ' advancement. The part of the arrangement in legitimate slaves was a continuous procedure, starting in Europe and afterward moving to the Americas. The organization officially finished in most of the created world in 1865, however illicit dealing in slaves keeps on developing all through the world in human dealing today (Kempadoo, 2016). Section Two: Literature Review The historical backdrop of human dealing, particularly Sex dealing, can be separated into three periods: (1) the 1840s to the mid-1890s, (2) the late 1890s to World War l, and (3) 1919 through World War Il. During the 1840s to the mid-1890s, the interest for subjection around the world joined with the arousing and movement of non-Western men stimulated the dealing of individuals. India, Burma, and Ceylon expected captives to help burrow for gold and valuable stones from mines and for improvement adventures like railroads. Neediness stricken voyaging foreigners in Asia would search for work and criminal businessmen would make a benefit by empowering the arrangement and transportation of slaves. The association of these individuals made a national sex showcase (Bakirci, 2009). Backing was so amazing in 1904 that few nations consented to a universal arrangement to manage slave exchange. The understanding vowed to (a) build up a focal vault for gathering and sharing data on the quantity of European ladies constrained into prostitution, (b) stay perceptive at ports of passage by requesting that ladies pronounce their nationality and report to experts that European ladies had to make a trip to remote nations for prostitution. The universal understanding of 1904 did not accommodate the deal, transport and constrained prostitution of European ladies to be announced unlawful. The understanding attracted consideration regarding the issue and uncover a racial separation. Ninety nine percent of whores were hued ladies, however the understanding did make an effort not to secure them. Ladies of shading were excluded in the battle against constrained prostitution or dealing until 1921 (Zimmerman and Kiss, 2017). Furthermore, in spite of the widespread agreement that no one ought to be constrained into prostitution, there was as yet an absence of accord the world over on the nullification of prostitution completely. A few nations accepted that prostitution ought to be lawful in the event that it included the consensual trade of administrations for cash. Despite the fact that the movement of prostitution was influenced by the migration of male representatives overall during the first and second time frames, the organization of troops additionally influenced prostitution and sex dealing. This was the situation during the First World War and during World War II. During their sending in outside nations, military troops submitted assault against numerous ladies. General Patton was accepted to have told a collaborator during World War II that in spite of endeavors to stop " wartime assaulting " it was an unavoidable event. The sending of troops additionally settled houses of ill-repute to enable officers to access whores. Some military powers the world over, including the United States, frequently sort out locales for " recreational prostitution " to diminish assault during the war. Undoubtedly, the United States and South Korea consented to build up rest and unwinding focuses between the 1950s and the 1970s which now and again involved prostitution (Feingold, 2005). People are utilized for an assortment of subjugation, here are a couple: Ranch work Residential work and childcare (local bondage) Asking/road selling Eatery work Development work Fair work Lodging housekeeping Crimes Any type of day work Prostitution is the most widely recognized type of dealing in the United States. Prostitution is likewise the world's most successive kind of dealing. Comprehensively, ladies are regularly casualties of dealing in individuals pursued>