Children pose a unique challenge in the clinical assessment of visual acuity and as such, there are a number of visual acuity tests that have been designed specifically for children. The reliability of these tests can be variable and may depend on the age of the child being tested.
1. In NSW children are screened for visual defects at preschool age through the STEPs program. What are some of the challenges that may be associated with the examination of a preschool aged (4 year old) child’s visual acuity? How might you modify your communication, behaviour and testing method to cope with these challenges?
2. From the list of children’s visual acuity tests below choose one test to research and answer the following questions. You should try to find original research/ seminal papers related to the test and should have a minimum of 5 references for this part.
Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) HOTV single surround Test
Teller Acuity Cards
Cardiff Acuity Cards
a. Background information about the test e.g. Who designed this test? When was the test designed? Who was the test designed for? Any other relevant information.
The honor plot underneath is inexactly in light of CASA directions as controls for the Asia and Thailand district couldn't be found. This honor plot considers Federal directions and association arranged contracts. A pilot may not fly and can't be rostered when the pilot has surpassed: 38 working hours for each any 7 back to back days 100 working hours in any 28 successive days 900 working hours in any 364 continuous days 11 working hours on a program 8 hours flight time on a program Be marked on more than once in a working day A worker (barring pilot) may not serve work and can't be rostered when they have surpassed: 59 working hours for each any 7 back to back days 155 working hours in any 28 continuous days 1,400 working hours in any 364 sequential days 11 working hours on a list Periods free of obligation: Pilot is permitted no less than one end of the week off in each logbook month Regularly the pilot is rostered for 5 days on back to back obligation and 2 days free of obligation. By common understanding deferral of one free of obligation day can be masterminded with the free of obligation day taken inside 30 days. Partition of free of obligation days can be attempted with common assent. In the event that pilot is far from home base then deferral of free of obligation days can be taken, however to be taking effect right now upon come back to home base. A pilot can't be rostered following 2200 the day preceding free of obligation is issued. On the off chance that a pilot has worked after this time due to postpones the compensation rate will twofold. Additionally a pilot can't be rostered before 0600 the day after free of obligation has been issued. A pilot will have a rest time in the wake of being on obligation of 9 successive hours grasping 2200 to 0600 nearby time OR 10 back to back hours. On the off chance that obligation time has surpassed 11 hours due to postpones the pilot will get a rest time of 9 sequential hours between 2200-0600 in addition to a hour for every 15 minutes more than 11 hours OR 10 back to back hours in addition to a hour for every 15 minutes more than 11 hours. On the off chance that obligation time has surpassed 12 hours due to defers then the pilot should get a 24 hour rest period. Rostering: A pilots programs must be arranged before 7 days of the list time frame and cover a base 14 day term. Break: A pilot will be permitted a 30 minute break inside 5 working hours. Leave: A representative is qualified for 42 days of yearly leave which might be part more than two areas inside a timetable year. Business related damage or disease will have a most extreme of 52 weeks nonappearance from work completely paid if evidence is discovered that firm is to blame. Disorder or damage happening outside of work will have a paid leave of a most extreme 10 days inside a date-book year. Pay Rates 1:50 lodge group proportion for 36-216 seats 1:36 More than 216 seats, 1 lodge team part for every each exit B787-9 8 exits Asset Planning Flight Crew Normal 28 Day Roster 18 days flying 1 day preparing 1 day hold 8 days obligation free Lodge Crew Normal 28 Day Roster 19 days flying 1 day preparing 8 days obligation free Flight Crew There are 13 list periods inside a year (28 days) Non working days are 42(annual leave) + 10(sick leave) = 52 days for each annum In this way around 1.86 enjoying some downtime periods per annum 900 working hours for every annum max ÷ 11.14 working periods for each annum = 80.77 working hours for every period - 80/10/13 80.77 working hours for every period ÷ 19 flying days for every period = 4.25 hours for each day In this way we should use our aircrew a normal of 4.25 hours for each flying day to accomplish most extreme usage of 900 working hours inside 364 successive days, as far as possible. Lodge Crew There are 13 program periods inside a year (28 days) Non working days are 42(annual leave) + 10(sick leave) = 52 days for each annum In this manner around 1.86 enjoying some downtime periods per annum 1,400 working hours for each annum max ÷ 11.14 working periods for every annum = 125.67 working hours for each period 125.67 working hours for each period ÷ 20 flying days for each period = 6.28 hours for every day Thus to increase most extreme usage out of our lodge team individual to the 1,400 hours working point of confinement per 364 successive days, the lodge group would need to work roughly 6.28 hours for every day. Example Planning Objective: Limit the quantity of group that need to work every day consequently flying the present team however many piece hours as could reasonably be expected. This takes into consideration high usage of team prompting a lessening in the measure of group required. Team remaining over at DXB rather than BOM if there should arise an occurrence of defers BKK-DXB-BOM group would go extra minutes. Obligation time of BKK-DXB-BOM = 10:38 flight time = 7:53. Aurora Air has chosen changing the flying machine calendar to attempt and execute a high usage of flight team, however this wound up not working because of the imperatives of most extreme flight hours permitted at any one time. Example 01 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0500 Day 1 BKK/TLV 0600/0946 7:46 Blk Day 1 Sign Off 1006 9:16 Dty Overnight: Tel Aviv Day 2 Sign On 1001 Day 2 TLV/BKK 1101/2247 7:46 Blk Day 2 Sign Off 2317 9:16 Dty Example 02 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0700 Day 1 BKK/DXB 0800/1033 5:33 Blk Day 1 Sign Off 1103 7:03 Dty Overnight: Dubai Day 2 Sign On 1048 Day 2 DXB/BOM 1148/1538 2:20 Blk Day 2 BOM/BKK 1653/2155 3:32 Blk Day 2 Sign Off 2225 5:52 Blk 8:37 Dty Example 03 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0730 Day 1 BKK/NRT 0830/1546 5:16 Blk Day 1 Sign Off 1616 6:46 Dty Overnight: Tokyo Day 2 Sign On 1601 Day 2 NRT/KIX 1701/1748 0:47 Blk Day 2 KIX/BKK 1833/2118 4:45 Blk Day 2 Sign Off 2148 5:32 Blk 7:47 Dty Example 04 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0530 Day 1 BKK/PVG 0630/1052 Blk 3:22 Day 1 PVG/BKK 1207/1429 Blk 3:22 Day 1 Sign Off 1459 Blk 6:44 9:29 Dty Example 05 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 1444 Day 1 BKK/TPE 1544/1940 Blk 2:56 Day 1 TPE/BKK 2055/2251 Blk 2:56 Day 1 Sign Off 2321 Blk 5:52 8:37 Dty Example 06 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 1654 Day 1 BKK/HKG 1754/2058 Blk 2:04 Day 1 HKG/BKK 2213/2317 Blk 2:04 Day 1 Sign Off 2347 Blk 4:08 6:53 Dty Example 07 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0600 Day 1 BKK/ICN 0700/1312 Blk 4:12 Day 1 Sign Off 1342 5:42 Dty Overnight: Seoul Day 2 Sign On 1327 Day 2 ICN/BKK 1427/1639 Blk 4:12 Day 2 Sign Off 1709 5:42 Dty Example 08 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 1638 Day 1 BKK/SIN 1738/2024 Blk 1:46 Day 1 SIN/BKK 2139/2225 Blk 1:46 Day 1 Sign Off 2255 Blk 3:32 6:17 Dty Example 09 (Base: BKK) Day 1 Sign On 0630 Day 1 BKK/PEK 0730/1219 Blk 3:49 Day 1 PEK/BKK 1334/1623 Blk 3:49 Day 1 Sign Off 1653 Blk 7:38 10:23 Dty Change because of 0600 limitation being incorporated Imperatives: Example 01 and 04 can't have an OFF day going before them 8 OFF days for every program period OFF days must be in sets 1 Training day for each list period 1 Reserve day for every list period No hold days cover between each armada write Each example flown just once every day An unscheduled day must take after a hold day Group Rostering Aurora Air has respected that utilizing the 'decent amount' framework in which the carrier will appoint the team their flying obligations in a reasonable way considering times of obligation extra time, hours as of now flown, and so on (Cybula, 2006). Furthermore team rostering will consider the legitimate confinements of all workers inside our area of Thailand and Asia. We have chosen to adopt this strategy as we are a beginning up carrier and it is accepted that pilots separated from the main pilot will have comparative flying hours. All unscheduled days are thought to be standby days in which the flight group can be allotted to a flight inside a brief timeframe. Need will be given to save group will's identity positioned at the airplane terminal helping with activities of flights and will be utilized first to cover any deficiencies in staff. In any case if a further lack of flight teams is acknowledged then any flight group on standby can be called into obligation. Both save team and standby group are to abandon pay however hold group must be at the airplane terminal in full uniform. Hold team will be given dinners at cost to the carrier. Groups who are rostered as 'Hold Ltd' are constrained in their capacity as they can't assume control over a flight design for over one day as it will interfere with the ordinary timetable. Consequently nowadays which just have save restricted team are considerably more defenseless to delays for the following coming day as the pilot may not be the place they are regularly rostered. Flight team utilizing wide body planes are paid essentially more than limit body stream because of the whole deal nature. On account of this whole deal there is less accessibility to fly more courses and henceforth the team wage is a various. The flight team is likewise paid by square hours as opposed to obligation hours and indeed if group is to remain overnight the present wage as of now incorporates a numerous that mulls over this. Settlement is accommodated flight and lodge team at the aircraft's cost. Lodge team will be rostered independently to the flight group because of their own arrangement of direction conditions which is excluded in this report.>GET ANSWER