1- “Testicles have been regarded as the historical seat of masculinity. . . these paired organs are responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. . .” (5) even though America has an obsession with the male penis in public discourse, despite the lack of research on male masculinity, testicular cancer.
‘“Grow a Pair” Critically Analyzing Masculinity and the Testicles’ by Frank G. Karioris and Jonathan A. Allan discusses society’s lack of interest with male’s sexual organs besides the penis—this is contradictory because the male’s balls/ testacies have ‘significant erotic potential.’ Arguably, this is contradictory because this is where a majority of men’s masculinity and sperm is held. However, a major reason why men do not focus on centering the testicles in their masculinity may be because of how vulnerable and sensitive they are; which are traits we oftentimes characterize with femininity and weakness. Instead, men focus their masculinity on their penis which is actually not as sexually appealing to women as they believe them to be. The other article we read focuses on this more. Additionally, testicular cancer is rarely discussed in popular discourse although prevalent among 18-35 year olds; contrasting with “Save the boobies” which is a popular campaign for breast cancer and widely advertised and discussed in public discourse. Why else do you think this is? What are your thoughts on masculinity and the scarcity of research conducted on testicles, anuses, and testicular cancer? What stood out most to you? How else are the phrases “grow a pair” and “grow some balls” used to empower individuals and what did you make of the use of political power and penises with Sarah Palin and her endorsement of the GOP candidate?
2- The article, Does Size Matter by Susan Bordo discusses normative assumptions about penis size and the construction of such ideas. She says toward the end of the article, “we are creatures of biology and imagination” meaning that bodies and ideas about bodies do not develop in a vacuum of pure genetics, or “nature” but are also shaped by culture or “nuture”.
I especially appreciated the interplay between biologically and socially constructed ideas about bodies (both penis size and female beauty standards) because it marries two worlds to give a more comprehensive picture of one’s actual lived experience. That being said, it’s difficult to parse out what behaviors are driven by genetics and biology (the physical) and what is driven by cultural standards (the social).
If one desires a large penis, for instance, is it because a large penis symbolizes virility and therefore signals to a potential mate a higher rate of offspring? Or is penis size wrapped up in the cultural messages one gets about pleasure and desire and sexual satisfaction? The same question can be asked about feminine bodies. Are they desirable because a certain waist-to-hip ratio, for instance, signals fertility, or are they desirable because we’re working off of a cultural standard of beauty…which is very culture specific. Not every culture or era has preferred the thin, blonde, white woman.
How do you think ideas about pleasure and desirability develop? What are some examples (from the text or otherwise) where you see culture masquerade as biology or vice versa?
The writing audit is a record of what has been distributed on corporate social duty; it recognizes the basic focuses featured by researchers and scientists. The writing survey passes on what information and thoughts have been built up on corporate social duty and it empowers additionally research to investigate these thoughts keeping in mind the end goal to make new speculations. Thusly a writing audit gives the premise to the investigative structure of this examination (Bryman, 2004). It has additionally assisted with the elucidation of the outcomes and has prompted different inquiries being inquired. The writing survey likewise featured that there had been little research completed on the societal effects of CSR and execution of CSR by multinational organizations in creating world. This gives advance significance and accentuation to the examination of writing in offering ascend to new inquiries and hypotheses. The writing audit has given the system of following profound research about corporate social obligation of multinational organizations in creating nations, specifically the issues and advantages of actualizing of CSR and the part of tremendous enterprises in this issue. The writing survey has recognized key topics inside CSR by multinationals and from this more inquiries have developed. Part 3 Methodology In this examination paper the contextual investigation was utilized as the exploration system. Typically elucidating or exploratory research is related with the contextual analysis, and this may be especially valuable when the wonder under scrutiny is hard to examine outside its normal setting. Utilizing contextual investigation look into procedure is likewise useful when the ideas and factors should be considered where test or overview techniques are respected to be improper (Yin, 1994). Contextual investigation is utilized especially in taking a gander at the particular inquiries, for example, "how and why" that is set in the contemporary condition (Yin, 1989) Case contemplate system has a great deal of focal points over some different procedures. To begin with, it permits the utilization of numerous information accumulation strategies keeping in mind the end goal to construct a more complete photo of the case being examined. Second, this thusly prompts the capacity to catch both subjective and quantitative information. Contextual investigations can give a strong understanding required to speculation advancement that at that point prompts enhanced hypothesis improvement. The fundamental favorable position of case based research is that outcomes are thought to premium and vital and can move the focal point of examination towards another region of intrigue (Scapens, 1990). The contextual analysis is generally viewed as more exact, different and rich, in the event that it depends on a few wellsprings of information (Alasuutari, 2000). Points of interest of utilizing optional information for explore purposes As the examination is worried about multinational organizations working universally, auxiliary information will presumably give the primary wellspring of important data. As our exploration system is contextual analysis, it is smarter to utilize aggregated information that have just been arranged or outlined (Kervin, 1999). Auxiliary information can be gotten from various sources went for the same geographic region, where our contextual investigation happens, for example, the Coca-Cola's emergency in India. Region based various wellsprings of information are normally effectively accessible in various structures, particularly in distributed structures. Additionally following the first wellspring of auxiliary information is significantly simpler, particularly when time limitations are serious. As it will be a contextual analysis, it is even desirable over utilize daily papers, diaries and media all the time, as they may give late occasions inside the business world. Research will concern the particular nation i.e. India, information from government sources are likewise valuable because of their high caliber. In view of time requirements, auxiliary information can be acquired rapidly, what's more they have better quality norms in examination with gathering own information (Stewart and Kamins, 1993). Utilizing optional information inside accumulation likewise has an extensive variety of advantages, as they have just been gathered and broke down (Cowton, 1998). Not at all like the information gathered independent from anyone else, auxiliary information are for all time accessible and effortlessly open, with the goal that it can be checked moderately effectively to others (Denscombe, 1998). Issues with gathering essential information for look into purposes Access for some essential information can be hazardous and troublesome. Along these lines it is far-fetched that picking up authorization for physical access will be simple and will be tedious. As a meeting is path for gathering essential information, anyway it is hard to look for access to a scope of members, for example, workers, providers, clients and other partner gatherings. The primary driver may be limited access to organization's information either straightforwardly or in a roundabout way (Bunchanan et.al., 1998; Raimond, 1993). As a full time ace understudy, you are not ready to have earlier contact with gigantic multinational organizations and you will be required to consult keeping in mind the end goal to increase any entrance to each level of data. Additionally, the real deterrent in acquiring essential information is time compels. There isn't adequate time for all techniques for gathering essential information, as physical access may take weeks or even months (Bunchanan et.al., 1998). Indeed, if there are time stipends, it's not possible for anyone to ensure that answers will be snappy and contain all important data. If there should arise an occurrence of chances for leading meetings, undertaking polls or taking part in perception, lamentably, this would take half a month. Whichever technique will be picked, all strategies for social occasion essential information are extremely tedious (Bryman, 1988). In any case, because of the developing essentialness of the theme, numerous specialists have utilized essential information to lead explore. They gathered essential information through meetings, perception and surveys. There are a few cases of contextual analysis based research approaches. The execution of CSR in creating nations was analyzed by Christina L. Anderson and Rebecca L. Bieniaszewska in the paper "The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Oil Company's Expansion into New Territories". The points of the examination were to investigate the part of CSR in British Petroleum's general business system and to examin the advantages of utilizing CSR as a piece of business procedure when it was working in new regions and societies. The contextual investigation approach was led through giving meetings delegates from BP, social examining and bookkeeping experts. Late organization reports and site data were additionally analyzed. Another illustration originated from Richard Welford and Stephen Frost's examination that gives a diagram of CSR hones in Asia. The point of the exploration paper is to audit the advantages of the execution of CSR in supply chains and emerging impediments. Keeping in mind the end goal to gather information for inquire about purposes, interviews were embraced with six CSR supervisors working for understood brand enterprises, ten manufacturing plant directors and eight CSR specialists. Meetings were held secrecy and namelessly. All members have broad experience of CSR issues and give a decent review of the difficulties for CSR by multinational organizations in Asia. The contextual investigation based approach demonstrated that multinational organizations, for example, Gap, Nike, Reebok, working in Asia, are as yet proceeding to be reprimanded in light of the fact that they were not 100% impeccable, flopping in legitimate usage of CSR and also checking. Another case of an exploration contextual analysis originated from Ian Harwood and Stuart Humby from the University of Southampton in their examination paper " Embedding corporate duty into supply: A depiction of advance". Their examination receives a contextual investigation system, with particular spotlight on an exploratory cross-case investigation. Alongside the modifying writing survey, techniques included nine semi-organized meetings (1.5 hours each), trailed by discussions with various open and private associations, which concerned CSR issues and additionally discoursed with different colleges working in the field of corporate duty both locally and universally. A few members got some information about obscurity and classification. Thus, moral issues were considered amid the way toward social occasion information. Nine organizations were extensive endeavors, working in multinational markets. The respondents were senior administrators and executives in either obtainment or CSR related parts. The point of research was to distinguish the CSR rehearses in organizations, the procedures of actualizing CSR in production network including the administration of hazard and execution administration. Likewise, sees on the issues for future advancement of CSR were examined. Corporate Social Responsibility turned into an essential issue in the late twentieth century. Be that as it may, there are as yet a few vast organizations, acting deceptively inside society. Numerous organizations have underlined that they represent their social obligation and conduct, yet as a rule, this is just on paper. There are incalculable cases that can be inspected for corporate social duty of multinational organizations in creating nations. Ten understood organizations were picked, in light of the fact that every one of them were censured for corporate social recklessness and disappointments in satisfying their commitments towards society and condition. Reebok case "I don't have the foggiest idea about that anyone has purchased a couple of Reebok shoes due to its human rights program. Be that as it may, we are a worldwide partnership and we have a commitment to offer back to the networks in which we live and work." - Doug Cahn, Director of Human Rights Programs, Reebok global restricted Foundation US-based Reebok International Limited (Reebok) is one of the main footwear organizations on the planet. With over a hundred long stretches of activities in the footwear business, Reebok has tasks in more than 170 nations over the world, a large portion of which in creating world (Reebok, 2009). Reebok has its own Corporate Social responsib>GET ANSWER