Scope of the task
In effect, the CEO, Lisanne, is seeking from you:
1. a ‘lessons learned’ brief of the two projects, and
2. how these learnings can be adopted into MAC’s growth ambition project.
Firstly, you will need to critically examine what the two companies have done, or may have done, at each phase of the project management cycle (initiation, planning, execution – including monitoring and control but ignoring closing) and how that led to the final outcome. The outcome could be either positive results or negative results. As detailed information on the projects is ‘Commercial in Confidence’, it is highly unlikely that any company-originated documents would be available in the public domain. You will need to rely on company media releases, news reports, and professional case studies for information. In some instances you will need examine the outcome (e.g., inability to connect electric cablings between A380 aircraft modules) of the relevant project activities (e.g., engineering design) and make some assumptions as to what the companies might have done or not done in terms of following proper project management methodologies (e.g., quality plan …etc). Focus on the international context whenever you need to. This is particularly important for the second part of this task. You are working for a Japanese company, with a female CEO and your supply partners are from across the globe. What strategies are you going to recommend to your CEO to ensure MAC does not repeat Boeing’s and AirBus’ mistakes because of cultural differences and other issues that are unique to international projects?
The video on the AirBus A380 and 787 will provide a fair amount of information about the issues that both projects faced and should assist you with this task.
Your report should be presented in an essay format. It needs to look and sound professional and to be suitable for presentation in a Business Development debate.

Preparing your submission:
Prepare your submission as a Word document, up to 2000 words (excluding references). Make sure you include at least three references to academic and/or professional body publications, using the Academy of Management referencing style.
Refer to the Assessment 4 marking rubric before starting work on your submission.

You should by now have a good understanding of the unique characteristics of international projects. You should have a firm grasp of the way in which uncertainty impacts on a number of project management activities, in particular how the culture of international stakeholders affects the planning and execution of projects. Your task now is to analyse and critique an international project in terms of how well it is being conducted, the problem areas and possible improvements.

You have been appointed by Murasaki Aircraft Corporation (MAC), a relatively new aircraft manufacturer in Japan, as the Project Director. MAC’s shareholders include parent company Murasaki Heavy Industries (MHI) 64%, Toyota Motor Corporation (10%) and Mitsubishi Corporation (10%) and Sumitomo Corporation and Mitsui & Co with minor shares. MAC is only producing Regional Jets and has no ambition to compete with Boeing and Airbus, especially since MAC is manufacturing Boeing’s 787’s wings. However, the CEO, Lisanne wishes to grow the company to the next level by entering into the medium size passenger jet market directly competing with the Big Two. She wishes to use Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner lightweight construction technology to reduce the weight of the aircraft and the partnering strategy (international consortium approach) that Boeing and Airbus employed for the 787 and A380 aircraft respectively to spread the manufacturing risks – although the partnering proved to be problematic for both companies. In order to develop the concept, Lisanne has asked you to collect as much information on the 787 and A380 projects as possible and determine what they did well and in which areas they should have paid more attention, and perhaps performed better, in order to avoid the problems that plagued their projects. Lisanne needs the information to determine how feasible her concept is from a project perspective and to ultimately build a business case to persuade the shareholders, if the issues identified by you can be resolved.
Read through the case study material carefully.

Case Study
The Airbus A380 Program – One of the Most Ambitious Aviation Industry Endeavours
At the time, the Airbus A380 was to be the largest passenger plane ever built.

The Airbus saga: Crossed wires and a multibillion euro delay
TOULOUSE, France — On Jan. 18, 2005, top executives of Airbus and its parent company, European Aeronautic Defense & Space, staged the aviation industry’s equivalent of a Broadway musical for the A380’s coming-out party here, complete with strobe lights, smoke machines and chorus girls. Before a rapt audience, Jacques Chirac, the French president, extolled the colossal, twin-deck jet as an unparalleled symbol of European manufacturing prowess.
“When it takes to the skies,” Chirac said, “it will carry the colors of our Continent, and our technological ambitions, to even greater heights.”
By NICOLA CLARK DEC. 11, 2006, The New York Times

Airbus Video’s:

Why the A380 Program Became Distressed – One Analysis
The quest to build the A380 and the problems that were usually encountered in undertaking such a large feat of engineering were underpinned by some strong goals:
The Airbus saga: Crossed wires and a multibillion euro delay
“When Airbus was founded in 1970 two major objectives prevailed. The first was to create a consortium of existing companies whose facilities had been scattered at sixteen sites in four European countries including France, Germany, Britain, and Spain.
The second was to transform these existing companies into a modern and integrated organization capable of competing more effectively with American companies that included such giants as Boeing, McDonnell Douglas and Lockheed. Today, the only two surviving commercial aircraft companies are Airbus and Boeing. Airbus now employs about 57,000 people.”
By BARRY SHORE 2009, Global Project Strategy

Reading: Brief Historical Overview and The Drastic Failure and its Main Drivers
This is a very informative paper on the problems experienced by the A380 Program. It has a number of valuable facts which you can use for your analysis. Be mindful that this paper is written from an organisational, not from a project management perspective, however there are crossovers between the two disciplines and other information that you can utiltise for this assessment task. Frame your analysis and recommendations based on the international project management knowledge that you have learned in this subject. Don’t simply repeat/rewrite the content of this or any other papers. You are expected to demonstrate your understanding of the theories, concepts and processes taught in this subject and your ability to apply them in this case scenario.
Read the brief historical overview and the drastic failure and its main drivers sections from the following articles:
• Dörfler, I. & Baumann, O. 2014. Learning from a Drastic Failure: The Case of the Airbus A380 Program. Industry and Innovation, 21(3): 197-214.

Reading: Statistics about the A380 project
• BBC News. 2012. Factfile: Airbus A380. (February 8, UK). Accessed February 22, 2017.

Reading: Delay Issues Cloud A380 Visit
• Rochfort, S. 2006. Delay issues cloud A380 visit. The Sydney Morning Herald, November 28. Accessed February 21, 2017.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner

“The production of the Boeing 787 promised the next evolution in flight technology. Since its introduction, however, the plane has been fraught with crippling malfunctions. What’s to blame for the potentially fatal mishaps of this one-time dream machine of the skies, and how much information is being hidden from an unsuspecting public?” (Broken Dreams: The Boeing 787, Top Documentary Films, 2014)
Watch this Al Jazeera documentary for a good overview of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner project (48 mins).
The primary focus of this documentary is on Boeing’s management and alleged unsavoury corporate behaviours. Two main problems reported, amongst others, were the management of quality & safety and the problems with the lithium-ion battery technology. As in any project initiation research, you have to look beyond the obvious issues and also focus on the underlying factors that may be useful to your project. Determine which is the applicable information, synthesis it so that it is in context of your project and analysis how it can be used. For example, how did the corporate culture affect the project’s progress and chances of success; what were the processes that they did poorly or by-passed where you as a responsible project manager would not do. Here are just a couple of hints, there is other valuable information that you can gather in this documentary which would assist you on this assessment task. In short, exercise your critical thinking skills when watching the documentary.

Readings: the Boeing 787 Dreamliner

We have included four articles on the 787 project to get you started on this assessment task – however you are expected to conduct your own research and seek additional information from other reputable sources. Do not simply rely on the information provided on the LMS.
The articles by Shenhar et al (2016) and Elahi (2014) focus specifically on one aspect of the overall project management problem, i.e., the complexity caused by innovation and problems with Boeing’s integrated outsourcing framework respectively. Denning (2013) gives a ‘broad brush’ overview of the various risk factors existed in the program. The MarketLine Boeing Case Study – The 787 Dreamliner provides a concise and useful background on the rationale of the 787 Business Case.
There are other resources available online and via the library from which you can draw valuable information. There have been a number of documentaries on the Boeing 787 program made by various investigative journalists from major news networks such as CNBC, Al Jazeera and the like. They are very informative and I would recommend you to search for those on the web if they are still available.
• Elahi, E., Sheikhzadeh, M. and Lamba, N. 2014. An Integrated Outsourcing Framework: Analyzing Boeing’s Outsourcing Program for Dreamliner (B787). Knowledge and Process Management. 21(1): 13–28
• MarketLine Case Study. 2012. Boeing Case Study. The 787 Dreamliner. Accessed 22 February, 2016.
• Shenhar, A. J., Holzmann, V., Melamed, B. and Zhao, Y. 2016. The Challenge of Innovation in Highly Complex Projects: What Can We Learn from Boeing’s Dreamliner Experience?. Project Management Journal. 47(2): 62–78.
• Denning, S. 2013. What went wrong at boeing. Strategy & Leadership. 41(3): 36-41.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.