What are the antecedents of school structure? How do they influence the way schools are organized and operationalized?
The United Kingdom’s European Withdrawal Agreement Bill, also known as Brexit, was a public vote that had culminated after about half a century of tension between Britain and the European Union (EU)(Pruitt). Brexit will officially remove the United Kingdom(UK) from the EU leaving it as an independent nation. Many different factors led to the passing of Brexit by public vote, but now Brexit is being looked at because of problems that could arise from it. After the public vote held for this bill, it passed because of Britain’s economic status and identity, but a new Brexit deal is trying to be reached to avoid possible consequences. Britain’s exit of the European Union was the result of support for the Conservative party in the United Kingdom and the growing support for the United Kingdom Independence party (UKIP) during the early 2010s (Pruitt). One of the major draws to the UKIP was that its party’s platform consisted of policies that aimed to control immigration, cut taxes for the middle class, and namely leave the European Union (Hunt). While support for the UKIP was growing Conservative candidate David Cameron, who served as prime minister from 2010 to 2016, promised to renegotiate the United Kingdom’s membership with the European Union if his party won the majority in the 2015 election (Kellner)(Pruitt). The referendum that came about because of Cameron’s promise was voted on by more than 30 million people and just barely passed with 51.9% voting for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union and 48.1% voting against the United Kingdom leaving the EU(Pruitt). Although the vote passed in favor of Brexit, British Prime Minister, Theresa May, had her Brexit deal rejected by a margin of 230 votes by British lawmakers on January 15, 2019 (Perrigo 12). Now lawmakers must agree on a new deal before the deadline, March 29, or the UK will leave the EU with no agreement put in place (Frazee). One of the biggest reasons why many British citizens voted to “leave” was the economic stagnation that arose from the global financial crisis of 2008 (Friedman). This global financial crisis according to the Reserve Bank of Australia was “the period of extreme stress in global financial markets and banking systems between mid 2007 and early 2009” (“The Global Financial…”). While the crisis started in the United States Britain soon started to feel the effects of it as the British bank Northern Rock collapsed in 2007(“The Global Financial…”)(“UK economy: The…”). Unemployment skyrocketed not long after the collapse of Northern Rock leaving 2.6 million people without jobs, which was the highest unemployment rate in the United Kingdom since 1996 (“UK economy: The…”). This unemployment which was still felt around the time the vote was taken, with up to 6.8% unemployment in the North East of the UK during 2016, was one of the largest factors as to why citizens voted to leave the European Union, as the authors of the article “The mismatch between local voting and the local economic consequences of Brexit” published in Regional Studies reported, “Regions with larger shares of lower-skilled or manual employment, a greater historical role in manufacturing, and higher levels of unemployment were all more likely to vote leave (Be>GET ANSWER