“Please answer the following questions and upload your responses in the dropbox folder, Art of Strategy Question Responses. However, I encourage you to start early. While the book is meant to be fun and a relatively painless introduction to game theory and strategic thinking, it is still about 300 pages I am asking you to read. Also, reading this book prior to or concurrent with the textbook chapters may be helpful for the homework, particularly for Chapter 12.
In responding to the questions, please be concise. The primary purpose of the questions is to ensure that you have read the chapters. Rarely will the answer to a question require more than a few sentences, and sometimes just a couple words or numbers. All answers to the questions are directly provided within the book chapters, or require a small extension from something directly discussed.”

Reading Response Questions:
Chapter 3
1. If a Prisoner’s dilemma game is repeated exactly 100 times, what does game theory predict will happen?
2. In general, what is a “tragedy of the commons”?
Chapter 4:
1. What is the definition of a Nash equilibrium?
2. This chapter provides several examples of coordination games. Here is another: You and another person separately (and privately, with no communication) pick an integer between 1 and 10. If you pick the same number, you both win a prize. If you pick different numbers, you win nothing. How many Nash equilibria are there in this game, and what are they?
3. What is a dominant strategy? What is a dominated strategy?
4. Briefly describe John Manard Keynes’ metaphor for the stock market.
5. Bonus: Pick a number between 0 and 100. Your goal is to pick a number that is closest to half of the average chosen number of the entire class. If you are among the closest 5 people, 2 points will be added to your lowest (non-dropped) exam score.
Chapter 5:
1. What rule of thumb does the book suggest is useful for determining whether randomness is needed in a constant-sum game?
2. In general, how does a player determine the appropriate mix (probabilities) of their pure strategies?
3. If a person is asked to write down a “random” sequence of coin tosses, how would the sequence tend to deviate from a likely true random sequence?
4. How can randomized strategies be used to motivate compliance at a lower monitoring cost?
5. The chapter provides an example of a penalty kick situation in soccer, where the goalie practices and improves his skill at saving penalties struck to the natural (right) side. How does this affect his mixture probability of attempting saves on the right side? Why is this the case?
Chapter 6:
1. How do the authors suggest one might win at the game of chicken?
2. What are the differences between a commitment, a threat and a promise?
3. How might B.B Lean aggressively threaten Rainbow’s End to deter it from initiating any price cuts? How is their threat made credible?
4. How can “salami tactics” be used to defeat a threat?
5. What is the basic idea of brinkmanship?
Chapter 7:
1. What are the two main avenues through which an individual or firm can add credibility to their threat, promise, or commitment?
2. How might the Mafia serve to change the payoffs (and outcome) of two criminals engaged in the Prisoner’s dilemma?
3. Why did Cortes have his ships burned upon arriving to face an army that vastly outnumbered his?
4. In Dr. Strangelove, when asked about the possibility of a device (the Doomsday Machine) being able to trigger itself automatically, what did Dr. Strangelove mean with his reply, “It is not only possible – it is essential”?
5. How might forcing college bookstores to buy back used textbooks make students, faculty and publishers worse off?
Chapter 8:
1. What is signaling? What is necessary for a signal to be effective?
2. If education has a large signaling role, does this help or hurt Bernie Sanders’ case for free college for all?

3. What is the information asymmetry in the insurance market? How does this lead to “adverse selection”?
4. What is one reason the authors offer as to why an MBA might be especially valuable for women?
5. Answer (briefly) the “A Trip to the Bar” question.
6. Why did IBM intentionally slow down the speed of one of its printers?

Chapter 11:
1. What is a BATNA?
2. In the airfare example, suppose the one-way airfares were instead:
NY-Houston $551
Houston-SF $650
SF-NY $843
Total $2044
Using the authors approach, when both firms are equally patient, what would be the amount paid by each of the firms?
3. Is the strategy of brinkmanship a weapon for the stronger or the weaker of the two parties in a negotiation?
4. What is a virtual strike, and why might workers work harder during one?

Chapter 13:
1. Chapter 8 discussed adverse selection, resulting from asymmetric information in the characteristics of a product or person. How does moral hazard, another type of asymmetric information problem, differ from this?
2. What is the reasoning for offering a compensation scheme that includes a flat sum plus a bonus on the basis of output (as opposed to either just a flat sum or paying strictly on the basis of the worker’s output)?
3. What is the idea of an efficiency wage?
4. As compared to paying a bonus based on a worker’s observed performance, what is the benefit of paying workers on the basis of relative performance?

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.