Part One: Quotations (40 Points)
Identify and explain the historical significance of two of the quotations given below. Make sure to identify the larger source from which the quotation has been taken and indicate as applicable its title, author, time and place of composition, broader historical period, and genre (the type of source it is). Once you have identified the quotation, relate it to its historical period. What in particular does it tell you about the time and place in which it was written? What can we learn about European history before 1500 from this quotation? Be specific and base your analysis on evidence drawn from the quotation.
- I, Joan, Countess of Flanders and Hainault, wish it to be known to all both now and in the future, that I and my successors cannot and ought not to take any tax or payment from the fifty men who shall come to live at Courtrai, for as long as they remain here, to work in the woolen industry from this day on. But their heirs, after the decease of their parents, shall serve me just as my other burgesses do. Given at Courtrai, in the year of the Lord 1224, on the feast of St. Cecilia.
- At this time the commons had as their councilor a chaplain of evil disposition named Sir John Ball, which Sir John advised them to get rid of all the lords, and of the archbishops and bishops, and abbots, and priors, and most of the monks or canons, saying that there should be no bishop in England save one archbishop only, and that he himself would be that prelate, and they would have no monks or canons in religious houses save two, and that their possessions should be distributed among the laity.
- There are certain subjects in which, whilst a modest proficiency is on all accounts to be desired, a minute knowledge and excessive devotion seem to be a vain display. For instance, subtleties of Arithmetic and Geometry are not worthy to absorb a cultivated mind, and the same must be said of Astrology. You will be surprised to find me suggesting (though with much more hesitation) that the great and complex art of Rhetoric should be placed in the same category. My chief reason is the obvious one, that I have in view the cultivation most fitting to a woman. To her neither the intricacies of debate nor the oratorical artifices of action and delivery are of the least practical use, if indeed they are not positively unbecoming. Rhetoric in all its forms – public discussion, forensic argument, logical fence [sic], and the like – lie absolutely outside the province of women.
Part Two: Essay (60 Points)
Write an essay debating the strengths and weaknesses of one of the controversial historical interpretations given below. Your essay should bring together information from lecture, discussion, and the relevant primary sources read for the course.
Begin with a brief introduction (10 points) explaining in your own words the subject with which your essay will be dealing and the stand on the controversial historical interpretation you will be taking. For the body of the essay, devote about half of it to ideas and evidence that show the possible strengths of the statement you have chosen to write on (20 points); and about half of it to ideas and evidence that show the possible weaknesses of the statement (20 points). A strong essay is one that supports all the points you make by referring to specific information and to documents from the past. Conclude your essay by stating where you stand on the historical issue you have written about (10 points). Be sure to explain the reasoning that led you from the evidence to your particular stand.
- The Black Death was the most significant crisis of the Late Middle Ages (1300-1500).
- The Italian Renaissance marked a complete break with medieval art, literature, and thought.
Race’ is a complex and contested issue. The term ‘race’ is used to categorise people into groups according to biological attributes; mainly the colour of one’s skin. However the concept of ‘race has been manipulated to breed ideas of superiority and inferiority, which can be illustrated throughout history; colonization, British imperialism and apartheid in South Africa are to mention just a few, resulting in exploitation around the world being justified because of the colour of a person’s skin. Social scientists are divided on the use of the term ‘race’, some believing that it is ‘nothing more than an ideological construct’, while others disagree believing that ‘race’ is still held as a defining factor for some groups, resulting in the term ‘race’ being used in inverted commas by some sociologists (Giddens, 2008p.632). Ethnicity is interconnected with the term ‘race’, both using the process of racialization to define groups; however ethnicity has been embraced by some sociologists believing it to be a positive construct relying on individuals ascribing membership to a group where they see themselves as culturally distinct from others. Giddens states that ‘ethnicity is central to individual and group identity, but its significance does vary amongst individuals’ (Giddens, 2008p.633). In multicultural Britain today, cultural hybridity adds to the confusion of a person’s identity. A multicultural society with a cultural diversity is the product of immigration, creating rise to issues of discrimination, adjustment and assimilation for not only those who immigrate to a new land but also for the generations to come. South Asian British Muslims are a group that is constantly in a state of flux, adapting and adopting cultures to form a hybrid identity which consists of elements of a nation which has been left behind and a new nation whose culture is in conflict of that of their forefathers. Although a shared groundwork of religion, culture and migrant status are the foundations to help British South Asian Muslims construct their identities, there is vast disparity in factors of economic circumstances, nation of origin and education. Unfortunately ethnicity along with race have become markers of inequality for South Asian British Muslims in British society today, affecting all component of their social life i.e. education, employment, class etc. In addition to this, the Muslim identity of this group is also seen as incompatible with British society and the loyalty and affiliation of British Muslims coming under scrutiny. This is further exasperated by British Muslims being portrayed as ‘disconnected from and even antagonistic to British identity’ (Thomas, 2009p.1). It is largely portrayed that events of 9/11 and more so 7/7 have produced a group in British society that is viewed with suspicion and animosity. However, British Muslims were in fact becoming the targets for social unrest before these events. The nights of sum>GET ANSWER