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Despite the difficulties and ambiguities in its conception and definition, crimes of the powerful have merit in considering structural power theories of crime. Hagan and Thio assert that those with power and privilege have stronger motivations, more opportunities, and weaker social controls, and are therefore more likely to commit crime (Friedrichs, 2010). Other advantages of theories of crimes of the powerful include explanations of how those in power get away with crimes, how certain acts are or are not considered criminal, and the importance of national conversation and punishments when dealing with these crimes (Anello & Glaser, 2016; Olejarz, 2016). Aside from the definitional and conceptual issues, there are a few other disadvantages to these theories as well. The ambiguity of definitions of these crimes has made this topic difficult to study empirically (Nash, 2017). The definitions that are in place do not really make a distinction between crimes of the individual and crimes of the organization as a whole (Maguire et al., 1994; Reurink, 2016). Penalties and theories of control do not apply to these crimes like they do to others, since one cannot imprison a corporation (Gottschalk, 2016). Finally, deterrence and punishment rely on the idea that people are ashamed of crime, and research shows that powerful offenders typically do not feel shame for their offenses as ordinary citizens might (Braithwaite & Drahos, 2002). Contributions Criminology. Due to the ambiguous definitions and wide scope of crimes of the powerful, the contributions that will be discussed will focus on white collar crime, as that seems to be where more of the research focuses. The term “white collar crime” was coined by Sutherland in 1939, which he defined as a “phenomenon of lawbreaking by respectable persons of the upper reaches of society” (Reurink, 2016, p. 387). These are crimes of convenience rather than passion, with the powerful using their position to save time and effort to reach their greedy ends (Gottschalk, 2016). Theoretical contributions to white collar crime conceptualization have been drawn from sociology and psychology, starting with Freud and his discussions of conflict of desires and needs that cause people to commit crime (Friedrichs, 2010). According to this framework, white collar criminals desire conventional success, and they need to achieve this success by any means necessary. With this, Sutherland discusses personality traits of white collar criminals, claiming that they have normal personality types with more tendency toward risk- taking, ambition, and egocentrism, which would explain their “subtle” criminality that doesn’t follow typical norm infractions (Friedrichs, 2010). White collar crimes are often not included in official statistics, and most victims are unaware of their victimhood, as these “subtle” crimes occur in private and are typically covered up (Maguire et al., 1994). Next, Gottfredson and Hirschi offer sociogenic explanations, that criminals have lower self-control and therefo>GET ANSWER