The clinical manifestations and treatment of pneumonia depend on the underlying health of the individual and the causative organism.
Fever, cough, and dyspnea are common to most types of pneumonia.
Physical examination may reveal fine crackles with associated egophony and increased tactile fremitus (consistent with pulmonary consolidation).
Blood work may reveal a leukocytosis with an increase in neutrophils in bacterial pneumonia, and an increase in lymphocytes in viral pneumonia.
Chest X-ray will reveal lobar consolidation in most bacterial pneumonias, while an interstitial pattern is common in viral pneumonia.
Sputum Gram stain may reveal numerous neutrophils and bacteria or may be nonspecific. Sputum and blood cultures can help confirm the diagnosis.
A serum C-reactive protein or procalcitonin level can help differentiate between bacterial and viral pneumonia.
Patients should be placed on isolation precautions until the causative organism can be identified.
Bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics; severe cases of influenza are treated with antivirals.
Other important interventions include hydration, deep breathing and cough, and, in some cases, chest physical therapy.
Complete the activity to strengthen your understanding of the clinical manifestations and treatment of pneumonia.
Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Pneumonia Activity
What are some of the physical findings one would look for in an individual with bacterial pneumonia? List at least Five Findings.
Write Three most important laboratory findings one would expect to find in an individual with bacterial pneumonia?
What are Four major features of management of an individual with bacterial pneumonia?