In what situations would some of these levels be more important than others? For example, what issues might be considered by the corporate level? What do you see as the primary responsibilities of corporate-level executives? When might the business-level managers bear more responsibility for considering how to respond to an issue? In what situations might the functional-level managers have a primary responsibility for considering an issue? How should the organization ensure the proper attention to each level of strategy as needed?
n order to measure the effect of sensory metaphors on the dependent variables: ‘the consumers’ general attitude towards the company’, ‘the consumers’ perception of the company’s social orientation’, and ‘consumer purchase intention’, two sensory metaphors regarding warmth and haptics were selected. They were chosen for further research since their power as sensory metaphors was proven by other studies. This paragraph will further explain the power and associations of the selected sensory metaphors within this experiment. 2.5.1 Warmth metaphors A common used metaphor in daily life is that of warmth and cold as a personality trait. Perceiving someone as warm or cold entails a broad understanding that focuses on a certain degree of socialilty. We describe people as warm when we perceive them as social, good-natured, friendly, helpful and trustworthy, and on the other hand as cold when we perceive them as unsocial, unfriendly, deceitful and unreliable (Rosenberg, S. et al. (1968), fiske cuddy glick, 2008). The power of this metaphor is also demonstrated as a sensory metaphor by Williams and Bargh (2008). Subjects of their experiment briefly held a cup of hot coffee or a cup of iced coffee after which they had to fill in a personality impression questionnaire. As a result, the subjects who held the warm cup of coffee had a higher perceived social warmth in other people than the subjects who held the iced coffee. Another study by Williams and Bargh (2008) concluded that when holding a warm object instead of a colder one, people will behave in a more socially warm and caring way, for example by rather choosing a gift for their friends than for themselves. The subjects who held a cold object were more greedy and in 75% of the cases they chose a gift for themselves. The abovementioned studies showed that incidental experiences with physical warmth turned into social warmth in a subconscious manner. How could warm objects produce the same affective states as a ‘warm’ person? According to Asch (1946), most abstract concepts in psychology are metaphorically based on concrete physical experiences and the affective responses are stored together in memory. As a result, the feelings of warmth when one holds a hot cup of coffee or takes a warm bath might activate memories of other feelings associated with warmth (trust and comfort), because of earlier experiences with caretakers who provided warmth, shelter, safety, and nourishment. Because of these frequent early life experiences with the trustworthy caregiver, a close mental association usually develops between the concepts of physical warmth and psychological warmth. This research by Asch has revealed t>GET ANSWER