Discuss the correspondences between the ER model constructs and the relational model constructs. Show how each ER model construct can be mapped to the relational model, and discuss any alternative mappings?
List the three main approaches to database programming. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?
move through the city (Valentine 1989). Valentine goes on to explain the routes that women take are “coping strategies” as they have to take a certain route to reduce the fear of being victimised. This may include taking a longer route purely because the area is more lit up or in a more populated area. Kinsey (1984) talks about the concept of a “virtual curfew” some women may have when going to some urban areas at night. This highlights the fact the fear of crime has taken over the lives of some women and they have to change their daily routine in order to avoid being a victim of crime. However, many academics believe that the outdoors isn’t the only place women fear vulnerable to crime. A lot of crime happens at home as women are at risk of being victimised by an intimate (Mesch 2000; Stanko 1988). Academics have shown women’s fear of crime by mapping areas where it happens (Stanko 1990, Madriz 1997). However Pain (1997) disagrees this is a good approach for violent crime as the British Crime Survey has revealed violence against women is massively underreported to both police and researchers. Domestic violence has become an increasingly worrying issue as in the United States it now constitutes the greatest common cause of nonfatal injury to females. The interest of women’s fear of crime has highlighted the magnitude of scale and how important it is do something about it and has therefore enabled crime prevention schemes directly aimed at women (Stanko 1995). For example there are now many rape crisis and sexual harassment shelters to help support women about confronting this type of violence. Women have united together in supporting women’s fear of crime and have held “take back the night” marches to show women they are not alone. These movements have highlighted the reality of most women’s fear and also enabled the public to understand it too. This literature is only taken from the UK and the USA therefore, could be seen to disregard women’s fear of crime in poorer countries which may be completely different. Geography of Crime An important part of understanding crime is trying to understand where it happens, researchers in the late 19th century and early 20th century made no advances in the spatiality of crime (Herbert, 1982). Shaw and Mckay (1942) were the first researchers to fully develop the spatial awareness of crime. They did a study on Chicago whereby they looked at delinquency data from the Illinois crime survey. Through their research Shaw and Mckay created the theory social disorganization. Social disorganization theory communicates that the environments (social and physical) around a person is a factor in what choices a person makes. An area with poverty and a high level of different ethnicities have the highest crime rates. In Chicago Shaw and Mckay noted four types of deviance: A relapse into criminal behaviour, youth crime, adult crime and truancy which were noted to be all interconnected. High levels of truancy in an area have been said to have been linked to potential delinquency. In the study truancy and delinquency was mostly found in the central business district (CBD) and the industrial inner city areas. The findings of an increase of crime towards to the CBD has been found in nineteen American cities. Many academics also found that the highest rates of crime were found in the CBD whilst they were lower rates in the suburbs (Booth, 1891; Burt, 1925). Herbert (1982) argues that spatial theory does realise that pove>GET ANSWER