What is the significance of the double-sided white arrows between the External Environment and the three major phases of the model (i.e., Formulation, Implementation, and Modification)? Please respond in no more than 3-5 sentences. (10 points)
Provide a specific example of how the external environment might affect the policymaking process. Please respond in no more than 3-5 sentences. (5 points)
Question 2. (15 points) Listen to the CNN story, “Here’s How the Government Can Enforce Quarantine Rules,” which may be found at the following link: https://www.cnn.com/videos/politics/2020/03/15/cross-exam-coronavirus-pandemic-honig-vpx.cnn.
Briefly describe state and federal powers to enforce a quarantine. Please respond in no more than 1-2 paragraphs. (5 points)
Should quarantines be enforced at the state/local or national level in your opinion? Explain your reasoning as it relates to federalism and state police power. Please respond in no more than 1-2 paragraphs. (10 points)
everal copolymers of methyl methacrylate and ethyl acrylate were developed as ester components with methacrylic acid for use as enteric polymers. These polymers are manufactured by an emulsion-polymerization process and are obtainable in numerous forms. The polymer content of carboxyl groups is the major factor affecting the dissolution properties of the polymer. They are synthetic cationic and anionic polymers of dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylates, methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid esters in varying ratios. Polymethacrylates are used as tablet binders, tablet diluents and film forming agents e.g. Cationic methacrylate, methacrylic acid copolymer Type A, Type B and Type C . Eudragit®S 100 is an anionic copolymer based on methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate which is soluble at pH of 7 or higher [128, 129] , the ratio of the free carboxyl groups to the ester groups is approximately 1:2 and mean relative molecular mass of about 135,000. Its pH-dependent polymer so, it’s usually used as an enteric polymer for controlling drug release in GIT. It is practically insoluble in water, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane while, it is freely soluble in acetone, alcohols (including ethanol 95%, methanol and propane-2-ole) and 1N NaOH solution . Eudragit S100 is insoluble in acidic medium and dissolves above neutral pH. Dissolution occurs as a result of structural change of the polymer associated with ionization of the carboxylic functional group. At acidic pH, Eudragit S100 particles posses low permeability because of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of carboxylic moiety and the carbonyl oxygen of the ester group in the polymer molecules. This bonding increase degree of compactness of the polymer and decrease its porosity and permeability , minimizing release of an encapsulating agent. When the pH of aqueous medium is increased, Eudragit S100 start to dissolve as carboxylic functional groups ionizes. The reported theoretical dissolution threshold is pH 7.0 and pKa of polymer molecules is believed to be approximately 6 . Moreover, swelling of Eudragit S100 matrix may accompany the dissolution process contributing to release. It is believed that Eudragit S swells at pH above 6.5 . Therefore, release of active substance may be due to the combination of swelling and dissolution. Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose phthalate (HPMCP): These are natural cellulose synthetically modified to produce partly methyl ethers, 2-hydroxy propyl ethers and phthalyl esters. HPMCP is manufactured by esterification of hypromellose with phthalic anhydride. The level of alkyloxy and carboxybenzoyl substitutions determines the properties of polymer and in particular the pH at which it dissolves in aqueous medium. HPMCP (also known as Hypromellose phthalate)  is commonly used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as an enteric coating material for tablets or granules [134-138]. Hypromellose phthalate is insoluble in gastric fluid, but will swell and dissolve speedily in the upper intestine. These polymers can be use>GET ANSWER