The exceptional child

Jessica Figueroa July 4, 2021 Chapter 4
Key terms

  1. Acquisition stage of learning- The initial phase of learning when students are learning how to perform a new
    skill or use new knowledge. Feedback should focus on the accuracy and topography of a student’s response,
    compared with the practice stage of learning.
  2. Active student response – A frequency based measure of a student’s active participation during instruction.
    Measured by counting the number of observable responses made to a lesson.
  3. Adaptive behavior – Is the collection of conceptional, social, and practical skills that have been learned and
    performed by people in order to function in their everyday lives.
  4. Amniocentesis – The insertion of a hollow needle through the abdomen into the uterus of a pregnant woman.
    It’s used to obtain amniotic fluid to determine the presence of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities. It can
    also determine the gender of the fetus.
  5. Chorionic villi sampling – A procedure for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities that can be
    conducted during the first 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal cells are removed from the chorionic tissues,
    which surround the fetus and directly analyzed.
  6. Down syndrome – A chromosomal anomaly that often causes moderate to severe mental retardation, along
    with certain physical characteristics such as a large tongue, heart problems, poor muscle tone, and a broad flat
    bridge on nose.
  7. Fragile X syndrome – A chromosomal abnormality associated with mild to severe mental retardation.
    Thought to be the most common known cause of inherited intellectual disabilities.
  8. Generalization – The extent to which previously learned knowledge or skill either occurs under conditions
    different those under which it was learned or is performed in a different but functionally equivalent manner
  9. Genetic counseling – A specially trained medical counselor having a discussion with parents who are
    considering having a baby with a disability based on the prospective parents genetic background.
  10. Intellectual disability – Is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning
    and practical adaptive behaviors as expressed in conceptual social, and practical adaptive skills. The disability
    originated before the age 18. It refers to the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously
    with mental retardation.
  11. Maintenance – Is the extent to which a learner continues to exhibit a previously learned behavior after a
    portion or all of the instructional intervention originally used to teach the skills was terminated.
  12. Normal curve – A mathematically derived curve depicting the theoretical pro ability of a given variable in the
    general population.
  13. Normalization – The belief that individuals with disabilities should do the maximum extent possible. They
    should be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of their degree or type of
    disability. As an approach to intervention, the use of progressively more normal settings and procedures to
    establish or maintain personal behaviors which are as culturally normal as possible.
  14. Norm- referenced test – A test conducted so that a person’s score can be compared with others of the
    same age or grade level. Contrast with the criterion referenced test.
  15. Perinatal – Occurring at or immediately after birth.
  16. Phenylketonuria – An inherited metabolic disease that can cause severe mental retardation can now be
    detected at birth, and the detrimental effects can be prevented with a special diet.
  17. Pica – A form of self injurious behavior in which the person ingests non nutritive substances, exhibited by
    some people with moderate to severe mental retardation.
  18. Positive reinforcement – Presentation of a stimulus or event immediately after a response has been
    emitted, which has the primary effect of increasing the occurrence of similar responses in the future.
  19. Postnatal – Occurring after birth.
  20. Practice stage of learning – After a student has learned how to perform a new
    skill, he should work to develop fluency with the target skill. Feedback during this stage should emphasize the
    rate or speed with which the student correctly performs the new skill. Compared with the acquisition stage of
  21. Prenatal – Occurring before birth
  22. Rubella – German measles, when contracted by a woman during the first
    trimester of pregnancy, may cause visual impairments, hearing impairments,
    intellectual disabilities, or other congenital impairments in a child.
  23. Standard deviation – describes how a particular score varies from mean, or

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