In your educated opinion, what was the greatest, singular factor in the thirteen British colonies declaring their independence and creating the United States republic?
dentity, the intrinsic properties of the chair cannot be dependent on the time in which the chair exists. This view is echoed by Steven Hales, who claims that the ideas of endurantism do not allow for special relativity (Hales, Johnson, 2003). The temporal parts solution demonstrated in 4D-ism does not seem to indicate similar issues, but is often criticised by Butterfield, who indicates the Perdurantists inability to account for those objects that lack spatial parts but have temporal parts. We will now return to the chair as the demonstration of Perdurantism; When the chair is present in the room, the chair is in state A (i.e., whole). Ten minutes later, the chair is in state B (cracked). The Perdurantists would qualify this statement as true, claiming that at state A, the chair had temporal part t1, whilst at state B, the chair had a temporal part t2. Temporal parts form the backbone of the perdurantist argument; that objects are extended in time as well as in space (Heller, M. 1984). Perdurantism has often been described as more relevant to the actual world, following the development of Einstein’s general relativity in the 20th Century, echoed by S. Hales (Hales, Johnson, 2003). This explanation would allow the chair to persist through time i.e. remain the same chair despite a change to its intrinsic properties (i.e. change over time). In order to fully understand perdurantism it is necessary to discuss temporal parts, for which the example of the cracked chair will be used. According to Lowe, the ‘statement ascribed the intrinsic quality of Fness [in this case, cracked] to a temporal part of A [the chair], rather than to a [the chair] as a whole’ (Lowe, 2006). If one describes the chair, cracked, at time t2, then according to the perdurantists, the chair is referred to as the temporal part of the existence of the chair that exists at time t2, and is in a certain state, cracked. Temporal parts are most often described as ‘time slices’ that themselves do not persist through time but are related to the certain intrinsic and relational properties of the object at that time. This theory would indicate that there was no contradiction between an ordinary object persisting through time and changing over time, as the chair’s change in intrinsic properties could be explained as individual temporal parts of the same object. This theory has often been hailed as the most logical solution to the famous ‘Ship of Theseus’ argument (Lowe, 2002). A similar version of perdurantism is called Stage Theory, advocated by Theodore Sider (Sider, 2001). Whilst Perdurantists would claim that what you see in the present is a section or slice of time (a temporal part), a stage theorist would content that objects are temporal parts. So an object that exists at time t is equivalent to the stage which exists at t, meaning an object has as many parts of its existence as there are temporal parts through time. Both perdurantism and stage theory seem to solve the problem of temporary intrinsics and does not contradict Leibniz’s Law. However, many have argued against perdurantism as falling into a relat>GET ANSWER