- Describe the ideological position of the Republican Party in the United States and consider both their economic and their social stance on issues. Give an example of each.
- Describe the ideological position of the Democratic Party in the United States and consider both their economic and their social stance on issues. Give an example each.
ainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is an ecologically and economically important species due to commercial and predator purposes. Rainbow trout showed how BPA exposure to rainbow trout eggs caused molecular reprogramming of the liver in two generations. Abnormal development, reproductive failure and disrupted metabolism are induced by chronic early and regular development exposure to BPA.12 Long term developmental issues are due to the fact that BPA is maternally transferred in fish12. In one experiment, the hypothesis BPA accumulation in rainbow trout eggs precedes effects that are long-term to be carried into following generations. Growth and changes of more than two generations were monitored from BPA containing eggs (specifically in liver transcriptome, using RNA-sequencing).12In result the eggs growth is impacted at certain stages due to BPA exposure in eggs (Fig.4). Although there was a reduction in growth, later on in their lifespan there was a catch-up period for them. This period allowed the trout to catch up on the growth scale which proved to be the BPA disrupting some sort of developmental programming. The results also proved that the second generation were BPA free(still raised from BPA-treated eggs) however, in the beginning stages of life and period of growth showed reduced growth and lipid buildup in the liver in older individuals (Fig. 3). The lowest BPA concentration which represents our environmental exposure proved to be the most harmful, which affected oocyte growth and maturation. As well as affecting the signals that deal with the last phase of oogenesis.12 The higher BPA concentration showed physical changes such as mass difference. Due to the reduced growth it suggests that BPA exposure to eggs impairs protein synthesis because it disrupts the growth hormone factor in the early development of the fish. Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) are model fish due to their homology of their genome being 70% similar to humans and the fact that they are being equally exposed, if not more to BPA due to our waste that is contaminating the aquatic environment.1 Therefore, In order to understand biological, chemical and genetic structures that are effected there is a need for toxin observation and it’s costs due to exposure. Fish, wildlife and ourselves have been greatly affected by toxins found the environment. Water pollution has been suspected to be the cause of damage to the reproductive health, lifespan, embryonic and larval development of fish populations.2 In one experiment the dose amount vs. effects was tested, the low dose of BPA exposure being 5 μg/L, the intermediate dose being 10 μg/L, and the high BPA dose being 20 μg/L. The goal was to determine which of these concentrations (which are common in the environment today) would have an effect on the reproductive system. The results of the experiment showed a blocked ovulation period on the eighth day of the BPA treatment in fish on the low BPA concentration. The fish that received the intermediate(10 μg/L) BPA concentration and high concentration(20 μg/L) did not show significant changes compared to the control fish with no BPA concentration. The low concentration of BPA (5 μg/L) significantly affected estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen>GET ANSWER