Describe the pros and cons of the American health care system, and describe the primary differences between the American and British health care systems.Paper is organized & includes concise and well developed introductory/concluding paragraphs.
recent published update, there were more than 430 genes, markers, and chromosomal regions associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes (9). The human obesity gene map reveals that loci affecting obesity related phenotypes are found on all human chromosomes except chromosome Y. The potential implication of genetic factors in the development of obesity is well demonstrated by the description of monogenic forms of human obesity. The genes implicated in these forms of obesity are summarized in Table 2. MC4R mutations are the most frequent cause of monogenic human obesity, occurring in up to 4% of early-onset and severe childhood obesity (10,11). Homozygous mutations of the leptin-melanocortin genes are often associated with other features, e.g. hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in leptin deficiency and red hair and hypocortisolism in POMC deficiency. Genetic Syndromes associated with obesity include Prader-Willi, Bardet-Biedl, Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, Alstrom, Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann, Cohen, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Carpenter Syndrome. TABLE 2 Genetic Obesity Syndromes Developmental delay Inheritance Prader Willi syndrome + AD Albright hereditary osteodystrophy + AD BDNF/TrkB deficiency + AD SIM1 deficiency + AD TUB deficiency + AR Bardet-Biedl syndrome + AR SH2B1 deficiency – AD MC4R deficiency – AD/AR KSR2 deficiency – AD Alstrom syndrome – AD Leptin receptor deficiency – AR Leptin deficiency – AR PCSK1 deficiency – AR POMC deficiency – AR 4. Endocrine: Endocrine disorders as a cause of obesity are rare and are associated with additional symptoms. Endocrine causes of obesity include Hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, Pseudohypoparathyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, Acquired hypothalamic obesity. The distinguishing feature of endocrine causes of obesity is that stature and height velocity are decreased, whereas a normal or increased growth rate generally excludes endocrine causes. Acquired hypothalamic obesity is a syndrome of intractable weight gain caused by hypothalamic damage from a tumor or its treatment with radiotherapy or surgery. Such patients >GET ANSWER