What was the role of slavery in southern and northern visions of nation before and during the Civil War?
Ishfaq and Chaudhary (1999)The debt history of Pakistan started in 1984-85, when the surplus revenues turned into a deficit. The fiscal deficit and debt converted into multiple rates. The total deficit rate was Rs 89.2 billion in 1990-91 that rate was increased to 66% in 1997-98 and approximately to Rs 148 billion. The domestic debt was increased to 185 percent the amount increased Rs 448 billion to Rs 1280 billion and foreign debt increased to 156 percent the amount was Rs 272 billion to Rs 697 billion in the same time period. Pakistan has an opportunity to do some measures for the establishment of the macroeconomic indicator rather than to go for deficit financing for generating the revenue. In the mid of the 2008 the Pakistan started registering the imbalance in the overall economy. At the end of the 2008 the Pakistan fiscal deficit was increased to $ 5.6 billion that exceed to $ 8 billion. The trade deficit also increases to $ 13 billion to $ 18 billion. Foreign reserve has fallen to decrease to $ 6.5 billion. (Baig, 2011) Pakistan forced to take the help from the IMF in order to get financing for the deficit finance of their economy. The help provided by the IMF was the package of $6.7 billion that was later increased to $ 11.3 billion in 2009. The IMF also helped Pakistan by providing bilateral and multilateral aid that also causes to increase external debt and liabilities to $ 54 billion from $ 41 billion in January 2008. Pakistan is also used to sovereign bonds and sindak bonds in order to use another form of deficit financing. This also creates a problem for a country to repurchase these bonds according to their specified time table or schedule because different countries have different foreign currencies. In these situation investors does not show their concern toward the investment. (Baig, 2011) These both measures are taken by the international market that is not so enough for the needs of the Pakistan and then government compelled toward the third mode of deficit finance monetization. The Pakistani government relies on the domestic borrowing that is the cause of disparities in the debt dynamics. The domestic debt borrowing increased to 24% in the mid of 2008. Pakistan domestic debt was multiplied from Rs 2610 to Rs 4490 in the fiscal year of 2007.At the end of March 2010 Pakistan domestic debt was $ 53.2 billion which was appoximately30.6% of GDP. All the source of the deficit finance is failing to attain the desired results and lead the economy toward the negative direction. By the mid of 2010 Pakistan’s total domestic debt reached to $ 100 billion and there is already paid interest about $5.6 billion and debt servicing amounte>GET ANSWER