Objectives associated with this essay. (These are not the instructions on how to write the essay.)
UNIT #1: Objective #1: Discuss the role of theory in the inter-disciplinary science studying constancy and change in normative development throughout the lifespan, without using vague, euphemistic or pejorative terms such as feel that, opinion, maturity, positive, negative or issues.
UNIT #1: Objective #4: Describe the psychoanalytic approach to lifespan theory (e.g., Freud, Adler, Jung, Erikson)
UNIT #1: Objective #8: Define the concept of cohort and provide an example.
UNIT #2: Objective #1: Interpret descriptive and inferential statistics used in lifespan research.
UNIT #2: Objective #2: Compare and contrast quantitative vs. qualitative techniques for doing research in lifespan development.
UNIT #2: Objective #3: Discuss the strengths (and constraints) of longitudinal vs. cross sectional designs
UNIT #10: Objective #1: Identify the terminology and stages associated with dying (e.g., life expectancy, mortality, agonal phase, brain death, clinical death, vegetative state, Kubler-Ross)
UNIT #10: Objective #2: Discuss clinical, social, ethical, and legal aspects of death and dying (e.g., suicide, euthanasia, palliative care, hospice,
advanced medical directives, conservatorship, durable power of attorney, living will)
UNIT #10: Objective #3: Distinguish between bereavement, grief, and mourning.
You must answer each of the questions below, using complete sentences as well as proper spelling, grammar, punctuation and use of terminology. In other words, follow the writing rules given in the START HERE folder. Only use pronouns when it is absolutely clear the noun to which you are referring. Preserve the organization you see below. In other words, do not erase anything in black, but merely type (in black) your answers between the numbered questions. What you see in blue is the beginning of your suggested answer. You may simply convert it into black and edit those words, deleting or changing those that do not fit your answer.
When you no longer need the instructions (in red) or the suggestions (in blue) you may erase them, so that when you are done, only the black remains.
NAME: SECTION: 111 JUN
Read this article from JAMA.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2773541 (Links to an external site.)
If you need to review how to handle such a research study, watch this video again.
https://youtu.be/A5c-9KSIh8M (Links to an external site.)HYPERLINK “https://youtu.be/A5c-9KSIh8M”
HINT: Get all of your definitions from the classnotes, terms list, or assigned videos, not from Wikipedia or some online dictionary.
ESSAY #5: PTSD + depression = mortality
- Describe the subjects of this study. (explain) [ 5 points ]
PTSD, depression, and death rates
over fifty thousand women
VA patients who fought in different wars
a random sample of Americans from every cohort
The subjects of this study were … (now use one of the five phrases above, and justify it with another sentence).
- Was this type of research … (explain) [ 10 points ]
an introspection of one aging author
a case study of one old woman who had served in combat
a survey of over fifty thousand women
a randomized clinical trial experiment
a repeated measures experiment (before / after)
This study was an example of … (now use one of the five phrases above, and justify it with another sentence).
- Was the design of this study cross-sectional or longitudinal? Explain [ 10 points ]
- Which cohort did the subjects belong to: Greatest, Baby Boomer, Gen A? How did you figure this out? [ 10 points ]
- What kind of variable was cohort: constant, manipulated independent, manipulated dependent, criterion? Explain. [ 10 points ]
- What kind of variable was the subjects’ sex: constant, manipulated independent, manipulated dependent, criterion? Explain. [ 5 points ]
- Three main variables measured in this study were depression, post traumatic stress disorder, and mortality. Two of these were used as predictors to set up hazard ratios to predict the third variable. Which variable was the criterion variable? How do you know? [ 10 points ]
- The researchers admitted that they “adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and childhood socioeconomic status and further adjusted for health-related factors, including BMI, smoking status, physical activity, and marital status.” How should we view this statistical procedure? Explain. [ 10 points ]
impossible for a sample of this size
a useful approach to dealing with potentially confounding variables
- What was the role of the DSM-IV? [ 5 points ]
cause of PTSD
measurement of PTSD
treatment for PTSD
- What was the role of the CES-D [ 5 points ]
cause of depression
measurement of depression
treatment for depression
- What was the correlation between life expectancy and body mass index? [ 5 points ]
Explain how one of these words describes that correlation.
- What was the correlation between life expectancy and physical activity? [ 5 points ]
- The conclusion states “These findings suggest that treatment of PTSD and depression in women with symptoms of both disorders and efforts that improve their health behaviors may reduce the increased risk of mortality among this population.” Would you describe this statement as [ 10 points ]
data confirmed by a double-blind placebo clinical trial
an inference made by the authors
a self-evident truth
Now, go back and review what you have written, checking for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure that you have avoided vague or inappropriate terminology, such as
have instated a Communist regime, was widely spread and, as Folch-Serra argues ‘systematically enforced through schools and textbooks, the pulpit, the Fascist institutions and the media’ (p. 228). There was heavy censorship of news that could have challenged this image, which Folch-Serra shows was ‘illustrated by the Spanish media’s disregard of the Nobel prizes awarded to Juan Ramón Jiménez for literature in 1956 and Severo Ochoa for science in 1959’ (p. 229). This leads on to the contradictory nature of Franco’s treatment of the Republicans since, as well as spreading defamatory comments about their nature, there was also, as Folch-Serra explains, a ‘suppression of information about their fate and whereabouts’ (p. 229) which drew from a ‘deliberate policy of oblivion and silence’ (p. 229). By winning the Civil War, Franco also won the fortune of being able to rewrite history and, as Folch-Serra confirms, he was able to ‘concoct a uniform image of the defeated as one and the same’ (p. 227). Amongst other forms of propaganda, education allowed Franco to disseminate his version of events as truth, which can be seen through school textbooks which Xavier Laudo elaborates on how they ‘spoke of the desertion of Republican soldiers’ as well as presenting Republican Spain as the ‘enemy within’ (p. 442) who were ‘responsible for the erosion of the nation’s Christian faith’ (p. 442). Assmann further shows how this ‘one sided version of history’ (p. 64) not only ‘protected’ (p. 65) and legitimised Franco, but also ‘prolonged the enemy stereotype of the murdered communists and democrats’ (p. 65). Thus, it can be seen that Franco manipulated the memory of the Civil War during his dictatorship and how his policies towards the Republicans after the war allowed him to promote his narrative as the truth and legitimise his position. This collective amnesia that Franco wanted to induce, discredited and erased his opponent from history. However, Assmann adds that this ‘silence did not dissolve the memory of the traumatic past’ (p. 66) and did not fully discredit his opponents, as individual memories of the events were ‘materially preserved in the earth and in families’ (p. 66). Memory also featured heavily in Franco’s propaganda, with many references made to returning Spain to the greatness it had once experienced. Franco’s message regarding the Republicans was spread through education and Laudo explains that so was the image of the Civil War as a ‘crusade’ (p. 438) such as during the Middle Ages. Zheng Wang describes how school textbooks can be used as ‘instruments for glorifying the nation, consolidating its national identity and justifying particular forms of social and political systems ‘ and how the rewriting of school textbooks can be used to ‘legitimise the new regime’ (p. 45). This is evident on the front cover of El Libro de España, which features a boat sailing across the globe, against the backdrop of the Spanish flag. This reminds the viewer of the Spanish Empire, as Laudo confirms, ‘stressing the cross-Atlantic colonialist adventures in the Americas’ (p. 443), and the power and glory that this brought, ‘promoting a spirit of patriotism’ (p.443). Through this, Laudo explains that Franco was able to propagate his ‘vision of Spain’s history, its Hispanic mission for imperial glory’ (p. 453). Religious references were frequently seen in Franco’s propaganda, and comparisons were made to the Catholic monarchs and the unity and greatness Spain experienced under them. Miriam >GET ANSWER