The role of theory in the inter-disciplinary science

Objectives associated with this essay. (These are not the instructions on how to write the essay.)

UNIT #1: Objective #1: Discuss the role of theory in the inter-disciplinary science studying constancy and change in normative development throughout the lifespan, without using vague, euphemistic or pejorative terms such as feel that, opinion, maturity, positive, negative or issues.

UNIT #1: Objective #4: Describe the psychoanalytic approach to lifespan theory (e.g., Freud, Adler, Jung, Erikson)

UNIT #1: Objective #8: Define the concept of cohort and provide an example.

UNIT #2: Objective #1: Interpret descriptive and inferential statistics used in lifespan research.

UNIT #2: Objective #2: Compare and contrast quantitative vs. qualitative techniques for doing research in lifespan development.

UNIT #2: Objective #3: Discuss the strengths (and constraints) of longitudinal vs. cross sectional designs

UNIT #10: Objective #1: Identify the terminology and stages associated with dying (e.g., life expectancy, mortality, agonal phase, brain death, clinical death, vegetative state, Kubler-Ross)

UNIT #10: Objective #2: Discuss clinical, social, ethical, and legal aspects of death and dying (e.g., suicide, euthanasia, palliative care, hospice,
advanced medical directives, conservatorship, durable power of attorney, living will)

UNIT #10: Objective #3: Distinguish between bereavement, grief, and mourning.

You must answer each of the questions below, using complete sentences as well as proper spelling, grammar, punctuation and use of terminology. In other words, follow the writing rules given in the START HERE folder. Only use pronouns when it is absolutely clear the noun to which you are referring. Preserve the organization you see below. In other words, do not erase anything in black, but merely type (in black) your answers between the numbered questions.    What you see in blue is the beginning of your suggested answer. You may simply convert it into black and edit those words, deleting or changing those that do not fit your answer.

When you no longer need the instructions (in red) or the suggestions (in blue) you may erase them, so that when you are done, only the black remains.

NAME:                                                SECTION:     111 JUN

Read this article from JAMA. (Links to an external site.)
If you need to review how to handle such a research study, watch this video again. (Links to an external site.)HYPERLINK “”

HINT: Get all of your definitions from the classnotes, terms list, or assigned videos, not from Wikipedia or some online dictionary.

ESSAY #5: PTSD + depression = mortality

  1. Describe the subjects of this study. (explain) [ 5 points ]

 PTSD, depression, and death rates
 over fifty thousand women
 VA patients who fought in different wars
 a random sample of Americans from every cohort

The subjects of this study were … (now use one of the five phrases above, and justify it with another sentence).

  1. Was this type of research … (explain) [ 10 points ]
     an introspection of one aging author
     a case study of one old woman who had served in combat
     a survey of over fifty thousand women
     a randomized clinical trial experiment
     a repeated measures experiment (before / after)

This study was an example of … (now use one of the five phrases above, and justify it with another sentence).

  1. Was the design of this study cross-sectional or longitudinal? Explain [ 10 points ]
    1. Which cohort did the subjects belong to: Greatest, Baby Boomer, Gen A? How did you figure this out? [ 10 points ]
  2. What kind of variable was cohort: constant, manipulated independent, manipulated dependent, criterion? Explain. [ 10 points ]
  3. What kind of variable was the subjects’ sex: constant, manipulated independent, manipulated dependent, criterion? Explain. [ 5 points ]
  4. Three main variables measured in this study were depression, post traumatic stress disorder, and mortality. Two of these were used as predictors to set up hazard ratios to predict the third variable. Which variable was the criterion variable? How do you know? [ 10 points ]
  5. The researchers admitted that they “adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and childhood socioeconomic status and further adjusted for health-related factors, including BMI, smoking status, physical activity, and marital status.” How should we view this statistical procedure? Explain. [ 10 points ]
     unethical
     bad math
     nullifying hypothesis
     impossible for a sample of this size
     a useful approach to dealing with potentially confounding variables
  6. What was the role of the DSM-IV? [ 5 points ]
     cause of PTSD
     measurement of PTSD
     treatment for PTSD


  1. What was the role of the CES-D [ 5 points ]
     cause of depression
     measurement of depression
     treatment for depression


  1. What was the correlation between life expectancy and body mass index? [ 5 points ]
     Positive
     Negative
     Direct
     Indirect
     Skewed
     Scattered
     Null
     Not significant
     Unethical

Explain how one of these words describes that correlation.

  1. What was the correlation between life expectancy and physical activity? [ 5 points ]
     Positive
     Negative
     Indirect
     Inverse
     Skewed
     Scattered
     Null
     Not significant
     Unethical


  1. The conclusion states “These findings suggest that treatment of PTSD and depression in women with symptoms of both disorders and efforts that improve their health behaviors may reduce the increased risk of mortality among this population.” Would you describe this statement as [ 10 points ]
     data confirmed by a double-blind placebo clinical trial
     an inference made by the authors
     a self-evident truth
     political propaganda
     fake news


Now, go back and review what you have written, checking for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure that you have avoided vague or inappropriate terminology, such as
mature, maturity

Sample Solution