Unit 1 B’s introduction to the Five Great Themes of World Literature states with regard to the hero: “The surest way to understand what a culture of the past most values is to focus on what it considers heroic, in that a culture recognizes its heroes as embodying its most important ideas, the values that are essential.” Discuss the diverse values that our two epic heroes, Rustem and Dante, embody. Which values embodied by these epic heroes are endorsed or celebrated by their societies? Are any of their values condemned or rejected by their societies? Illustrate your discussion with specific examples of the heroes’ obligations to their societies and what their values reflect about their cultures.
Although two very different literary works, both the Shahnameh and Inferno deal centrally with the existence of human suffering and mortality. Discuss how the two deal with such issues as
what causes human suffering; what seems inevitably tragic about human existence; how one should deal with suffering; what one should learn from an understanding of human mortality. From the Shahnameh your essay will of course focus on Rustem; for Dante, you have many options, but the following characters and their sad stories make especially good choices for the subject (but you can choose others if you wish; just one will do): Virgil, Francesca, Pier della Vigna, Brunetto Latini, Guido de Montefeltro.
Individualism Transition in chinese language Cultural Values thru A Case observe of television show notable girl introduction “individual“, the time period by means of itself way some thing or someone specific. for that reason, “Individualism” is a revolution which tends to electricity the rights of an character. In nations like the usa, this kind of practice is observed. The human beings there wish that there have to be sufficient personal area for every individual without being disturbed with the aid of call of any kind of authority or strength as well. however the intense opposite lifestyle or practice prevails in China, which may be shortly called as collectivism. right here, neither the concept of person nor their want is given privilege. it's miles due to the fact they trust in organization concept and they attempt together for organization fulfillment. If in case any man or woman in a set is having opinion mismatch with that of the group, then the individual is anticipated to suppress the thoughts without worrying the group’s activities. (Pratt, D. D.1991) one of these exercise could also be regarded as forcing a commonplace idea upon everyone. however that is their lifestyle and that they have been working towards it for quite lengthy years. we've got to mention that they were given used to it. Now, in the latest beyond a tv display known as “high-quality women” has been started out and succeeded as properly. it's miles a talent fact display which brings out the abilties of an individual to the sight of everybody through giving them a suitable platform. another thrilling reality approximately this show is that, it is the general public who choose the show. They vote for his or her preferred big name of the display and for that reason the winner is selected. but it's far been condemned through the commentators that the brilliant women show is kindling the individualistic feeling amidst the collectivism practitioners. Many have commenced protesting towards the show fearing that the display might also disturb the chinese language culture. but on the other hand the public commenced enjoying the entertainment. they may be satisfied to vote for his or her stars. (Ding, Y. 2008) China is a rustic which continually fee crew achievement. really speaking, they comply with collectivism. They deliver an awful lot importance to organization mind than the person opinion. This practice is strictly observed via them inside the call of lifestyle. chinese language human beings have not practiced direct election. however these days the situation has changed due to the exceptional girl display in China. it is condemned by the analysts that this show has initiated amidst people individualism. let us discuss whether or not the show is truly spreading individualism a number of the chinese language youths. The chinese subculture –A history trade – has been the most outstanding element characterizing the world of these days. every second of our life is modified as discoveries and inventions galore the location we live on. This kind of transformation isn't new to the least. it has been a regular thing; proper from guy finding fire to the medical revolution, journeying from bullock-carts to trendy motors, from eating whatever to standardizing the meal we take, the sector has nearly visible the entirety. each alternate in turn became assorted amongst several businesses of human beings based on their idealistic values, the ethical concepts they followed and their welfare corresponding to their geographical place. these varied adjustments slowly evolved as cultural conduct of that specific group. Then there got here a factor in which all the variations attained saturation. ultimately, rather than these changes governing the cultural behavior, it turned out the direct contrary manner wherein cultural behavior dominates the modifications. (Songhua, F, n. d) For now, the cycle has grew to become again. It’s almost a revolutionizing act if someone does the direct opposite of what their culture intends them to do. chinese language way of life gives the chinese language humans their fundamental identification. they have positive core values which can be different and regular, and those are customary through a tradition of four thousand years of records and maintained with the aid of the same language as properly. considered to be one of the oldest cultures, the chinese language lifestyle has a significant and traditional records. several companies of people, every having their personal precise traits have fashioned and nurtured the chinese language traditions and practices. It has advanced through exclusive a while continuously however has constantly maintained its actual identification. ( future: tradition of China,1998) Being the most populous u . s . a . within the world, and the geographical panorama overlaying primary a part of Asia, there have been as many as fifty six organizations of individuals who followed specific culture in ancient China. (charter, 1982) As time surpassed by using, each of the companies lost their identity and their subculture got erased with time. chinese language culture is well inspired by using “Confucius”, who is a chinese logician. the lessons of Confucius are known as by using the name ‘Confucianism’, which pressure the importance of individual’s education based totally on morals in order that the moral distinctive feature of the kingdom can be raised. (Downs, 1971) China-gift state of affairs inside the contemporary scenario, China is considered to be the fastest emerging wonderful energy attractive itself to compete at the pinnacle most degree in almost all fields starting from enterprise to space studies. Its financial transition is growing exponentially while in comparison to different countries. In such a excessive paced world, the time spent for maintaining the real tendencies and habitat of chinese language culture is often unnoticed. Given the publicity to tv and net offerings, already doubts have risen amongst several quarters approximately the sustainability of the age vintage history. The distinct cultures uncovered to human beings thru those commercial mediums have fascinated the modern-day generation of people to explore the then unassailable cultures leaving them unfazed by way of the deterioration of their own subculture. (child, J., & David, ok. 2001). Individualism – A principle Oyserman, Coon, et al.’s (2002) via their significant analysis on individualism and collectivism suggest that Individualism can be taken into consideration as a stand-on my own assemble for analyzing move-cultural comparisons. They advise that individualism as the middle reason for the great differences society, feelings and person behavior. Individualism can be taken into consideration to be the most essential element for modeling a character of oneself. Mcrae (2001) also shows that a country’s decision to discover and try out new matters depends on their individualistic nature. for the reason that all of us contributes to the fulfillment of a rustic, this declaration does provide a fruitful concept approximately individualism and its outcomes. The concept of exploration and trying new things is termed to be an crucial function of individualism as it leads individuals to shape new relationships based totally on their desires and obligations. also, the connection existence isn't shaped on the idea of unity and those regularly entangle themselves in new relationships, that's completely contrary to chinese tradition. every other crucial characteristic of individualism is that it plays an essential component inside the nicely being of an individual. The character may be completely satisfied with the proper to choose their own reason and their own vision in their existence. They enjoy whole delight of what they're acting. that is one of the reasons that individualistic countries produce lots of innovations and new kinds of sports occasionally. people are allowed to explore in their own ways. (Lam C 1997) on the other hand, although individualism lets in humans to have their own relationships, it additionally lends to an increase within the number of divorces in an individualistic u . s . a .. but then, through all manner, human beings are satisfied in each ends with their relationships and that they revel in entire freedom. humans following individualism provide better importance to their enjoyment sports compared to other nations. it's been confirmed thru reports that individualistic humans generally tend to make self analyzed decisions primarily based on their personal studies rather than carrying out duties advised through others. (Schimmack, Radhakrishnan, et al., 2002) Collectivism versus individualism essentially chinese language human beings fee collectivism in preference to individualistic opinion. there may be no difference that rely to race, class or network. Their awareness is upon the opinion or declare of a set or association. They continually demand that a collection is more essential than an individual. This at instances led to suppression of self opinion and hobby for the welfare of the organization as an entire. for this reason collectivists have to be able to do sacrifice. however the exciting truth approximately that is, natural democracy is a shape of collectivism. (Jhuener,2006) however maximum American nations have developed individualism. They consider, without protective person’s proper, there's no sense in protective an individual. hence individualism is defined as a revolution which protects an individual’s proper which in flip protects a man from the alternative and therefore it protects the nation as an entire. It opposes collectivism pronouncing that it denies an character his or her right to life. moreover they rate in opposition to the collectivists that they may be poisoning the united states. additionally they condemn that the ability and efforts of some guys are been sacrificed for the sake of others. (Wong, E. Y. 2001) David Brooks, a newspaper editor, has analyzed approximately the striking conduct of the mentality of the collectivists and that of the individualists. He cites an exciting example. If we show the picture of a fish tank to an American, he'll awareness the largest fish in the tank and could start explaining approximately it, while if the same photograph is shown to a chinese man or woman, he will view the tank as an entire and could begin explaining approximately the contextual behavior of the organization of fishes interior. Brooks says (2008) “An American in trendy appears into the class however a chinese language will look into the context”. additionally Brooks (2008) explains the conduct of humans in collectivistic countries and individualistic countries as people in individualistic countries have a tendency to overestimate their abilities whereas the ones in collectivistic societies beneath estimate their talents. human beings in nations like China will always have a tendency to contribute extra for organization efforts. Scientist too has supported his thoughts. they are saying courting is the key to happiness. humans living in corporations have a tendency to flourish while the ones residing by myself have a tendency to melancholy and that they even devote suicide. top notch girl – the show Any country which receives a sense of something appealing and something they might get attracted too would welcome it with open hearts. Such is a situation with the tv show, “extremely good girl”. It is essentially a chinese language model of “American Idol” television show. whilst the display first started out in 2005, it attracted as many as four hundred million people from China, nearly equaling the population folks and uk totaled collectively. it's miles a girl contested show, in which any lady no matter our history foundation and other information can participate in it and exhibit her expertise. The show became performed in a hierarchical round order, where each round filters the variety of applicants and handiest the fine of the lot input the final spherical. (China daily, 2005) The 2005 season saw more than one hundred thousand applicants. everyone turned into given 30 seconds to carry out on stage and in the allocated time they must impress the judge with their talent. Out of the entire competitors, 3 were filtered for the very last spherical. They battled it out in one of the most exciting indicates that complete China has in no way experienced. (China day by day, 2005) The publicity become so much that in the final show, nearly each chinese voted for the contestants to expose their aid. The fundamental feature that attracted human beings toward the show aside from the glittering display became that the human beings have been in flip performed the function of the judges. It worried voting through SMS and different services. This made every person feel as though they make contributions towards the choice of the winner and this in flip stimulated every character’s spirits. (Ding, Y. 2008) one of the foremost elements of individualism that affected the chinese language culture through this show turned into neither the government, nor the party had any sort of role to play in its success. It’s an ultimately new issue for the human beings of China. The cause for this is, previous to this show, the only enjoyment that become given to humans thru television become Spring festival show, conducted with the aid of the government itself. And this display changed into running under strict supervision. most effective the party humans have been allowed to view it, the rest have been all watching via television alone. In fact, they had been allowed simplest to observe, now not even to participate. relaxation of the suggests that were given aired turned into all navy applications, bashing out all forms of navy anthems and stuffs. And so, in short, with this display, the party and the authorities have been overlooked all together. For, the human beings, any type of facts and policy from the government regarding the display wouldn’t have mattered some thing. for this reason, there was no show as universally widespread as this show was. (Hutong, X. 2005) The u . s . until then had by no means desired any person pop celebrity to show media toward them and gain popularity. So, while the three young lads, of their early 20’s, rocked the level with self belief and superiority, the entire country appreciated and amazed. It changed into a freedom of liberty, a freedom of expression to many people to reveal their expertise to all in a way they've never executed earlier than. (Hutong, X. 2005). this is the most famous in addition to the most sensational show as well. however then, it's far been condemned via the politicians that this display is offending the conventional custom of China. inevitably this show has kindled the nationalists to discuss upon the democracy in China. normally the achievement of tv shows lies upon the feedback of certain analysts who may be political commentator. hence they took in their fingers to 6b74cf6091d9a6c48475971cd6ba0acd approximately the sensational display. Yardley, J. (2005). upward thrust of individualism for the reason that time when China have become as people’s Republic of China in 1949, ‘Collectivism’ has been their coverage. It nevertheless stays the same. It does now not have direct elections to select someone to run the u . s .. in this factor of view, the “remarkable girl” show has provided the human beings a brand new shape of election where person vote casting subjects. It just absolutely opposes the cultural values of China. (Junbo, J. 2009). It follows the footsteps of ‘individualism’ which leads to the path of democracy in a non-democratic usa. that is the factor where the show attracted envy’s from all corners on a political angle. As quickly as the display received reputation, the politicians criticized it to be ridiculous and rudimentary, obstructing the growth of chinese lifestyle and referred to it as promoting individualism. (Quing, M. 2005). The change in cultural values toward individualism did now not prevent with enjoyment channel by myself. The mindset of the people was every other important element that were given changed. In China earlier than outstanding lady, humans were no longer given an possibility to vote. This in flip lead humans disabled to execute their freedom to pursue their very own route of lifestyles. In all ways, the government or the direction came of their manner. After this show, human beings have an opportunity to exercising their right to participate, execute their will. (Li, B. , 2005). the alternative trade added approximately by using this display is that the exhilaration and joy skilled by using the people at some point of the show, displayed that human beings are geared up to transport far from the idealistic values observed by the communist birthday celebration. though this seems to be just a view of humans, many critics agree with that it has led to a new phenomenon emulating the civil society, wherein man or woman human beings can be given the better precedence instead of the society. beginning from the stop of the 20th century, there had been innumerable divisions inside the society primarily based on social and cultural values. Zhu Dake (2005) has even referred to approximately this, The splendid women allow us to see that after the media can hold close public opinion, it is able to generate a effective force. I feel that public opinion will be the most productive pressure in 21st century China. role of media Coming to the element the media played in this, the “exquisite ladies” show has showed that how powerful media can be. It has given a stable energy and proof to the people that media has the power to trade the face of the kingdom. It has the energy to elevate the voice of the public, no matter how massive the authorities is. also, with the advent of internet honestly making its way into each and all and sundry’s lives, the proper to express character view as collected attention and those are starting to apply it. extremely good girl-show for all earlier than the display became aired, each pastime executed inside the u . s . become steadily developing a break up between the extraordinary ranges of society. The elite and rich human beings of China had a better say in every and each pastime than the under-privileged. This became becoming a primary element cultivating caste and ethnic institution differences. the advent of this show smashed up such theories that were current and that had been been practiced. It cleared the air pointing out a firm statement that the u . s . a . and participation is for all. (Lynch, D. 2005) great girls – the three finalists and their spirit of individuality Out of the several heaps of people who competed inside the wonderful female display, 3 ladies had been decided on within the final. They have been Li Yuchun, Zhou Bichang, Zhang Liangying. Out of the 3 , Li Yuchun emerged as the winner with almost 3.5 million votes. What helped her , irrespective of our weak voice become her character and undeterred mindset and motivation to be triumphant. these are the traits of individualism. She had a, very an awful lot look of boyish hair style and a grin that could lead 1000 different people smile. Her foremost function that made her the youngsters icon of 2005 changed into her astounding functionality to enthrall the public and her fearless competitive nature. She was determined to win the competitions and turned into prepared to expose her self-identification. She turned into an regular man or woman without a identity till the show turned into carried out. later on, she became the heartthrob of many youths, instilling individualism in a lot of them. Even after several months of performing, all the 3 of them persisted to improve their singing skill; the manner handled the public and popularity changed into extraordinary. chinese language subculture changed into essentially associated with human inner feelings and nature. They do now not care approximately the outer appears. but then, through this show, the girls were dressed and organized like Westerners. The Westerners got this trend best because of individual exploration. They were not terrified of the society for what they have been carrying and in-flip led them to distinctive findings. The same precept was accompanied here by using the exquisite women, main them to promote it the individualistic love for clothes to preferred public. They advertised themselves as an instance of individualism. The lifestyle of westerners is being imported with the aid of the ladies however nevertheless, the ladies have changed it to their personal culture and traditions. (Robertson 1995) An instance is the quick food processing diagnosed through united statesbut then, the chinese observed it and created their personal menus according to their way of life. The women served as the nice examples of global advertising and cultural trade. awesome girl – response from government because of the strain situations created via the display, the government, on 2007, banned human beings from casting their votes thru messaging and net. similarly to this , the government additionally changed the show timings in this type of manner that it is not shown in high time and as a result there won’t be as much viewers as there were in 2005. they've also located regulations on who all may want to participate inside the display. ( Kim, N, 2009 ) that is in reaction to their idea that the contenders are growing to be bad function fashions for the present day and destiny generation. They wanted even the dressings and hairstyles of the contributors ought to be strictly in keeping with the conventional subculture of the society. (Bao,. X.J., 2006). regulations had been proposed to an extent that they determined to prohibit the display. but the display went on in 2009 with some of these restrictions and is anticipated to preserve. some critics who are in desire of the show trust the amendments in media rules to be a primary step of success in opposition to the authorities. they are additionally of the opinion that with suitable and deliberate teaching, human beings can be cognizant of the democratic values and can affect democracy to be began inside the country. They pose the view that the human beings people have been now not born with the talent of choosing proper leaders, it came to them simplest in exercise as a part of their way of life. They agree with that such component could show up with China if practiced for twenty years. ( Ning, Q., & Ning, C.T.k. 2002) exceptional lady-benefits in exclusive fields other than democracy, this show has been a revelation in supplying best contents to the public, the method of operations being so current, converting the correct work ethics observed through the orthodox human beings. In terms of social values and society, this system became able to meet the demands inherent in not unusual humans. It helped them fulfill their desire to exercise their rights. In phrases of monetary adjustments, this show provided sales like never earlier than, as a result growing the cost-efficient stature of the u . s . a . from enjoyment industry too. (Xinhua., 2006) extremely good girl –bad remarks As a show, society wise, it didn’t cause any trouble. however due to its big popularity, the show amassed crowd wherever it were given telecasted. as a result of it, the regulation guys had a hard time to deal with the crowd. The crowds close to the stadium had been relentless to enter and the law men needed to use their sources to eliminate them. The entire situation had come to be unruly. The politicians afterward took this as one of the motives for bashing on the display. The grievance become now not a major one and it was forgotten as time passed with the aid of. every other trouble that occurred changed into that the selection round changed into no longer accomplished nicely and there have been court cases from some of the participants that although they carried out properly, they had been eliminated and a few type of discrimination is finished for selection based totally on some trouble. All this has now not been given robust proof until now and consequently the proceedings were now not taken critically. these have been some of the black marks which took place throughout its path time. non-public angle On a personal factor of view, existence is just a remember of intellectual notion. you can actually discover a sea of trade in life if the view of the same trouble is simply modified from its present day belief. The those who come to take part within the competition are from exclusive traditions and origins. before they may carry out, one should see their way of life and way of life being uncovered to others, both by way of themselves, or through their characteristics. Such conventional tradition takes a dump when they perform and get publicized after some success. Their individualism takes the front degree leaving out the collectivism and Confucianism. they are brought about to be self-conscious, self –conscious, care approximately themselves and overlook the so referred to as cultural collectivism. this can be seen in two ways. This both affects their personal cultural improvement or in a high quality note, enables them liberalize and apprehend their own self rights. it is obvious that each cannot be executed simultaneously. (Bodde, D.1957) apart from the contestant point of view, the alternative thing that is available in here is the democracy and direct election. for my part, I don’t see any form of relation among the great woman show vote casting machine and democracy. yes, I apprehend, it is one shape workout one’s proper to participate. It offers you delight that you finished something that could trade the fate of different individual. but the exchange doesn’t have the significance that a democracy election might have over a whole usa. (Zhou, R. 2005). This being one view, an additional factor of view is that this may be visible as a democratic seed sown in a communist land. human beings have a tendency to magnify this simple component into the sort of massive trouble that it got concerns from the government itself and caused the restriction at the display itself. right here, i have to say that chinese humans have thrown sand on themselves. they have visible some thing new, some new change being occurring, which they might capitalize on and make it scale more heights. as an alternative, they attempted to reveal the democratic alliance that it minutely had, right into a complete blown trouble and it showed the results of it. (Jakes S. 2006) It isn't viable right here to indicate a quandary on whether or not the democracy interpreted via the show is valuable, deep and concept frightening. there may be no compromise on whether it kindled the concept or now not. a few human beings would pass for a sure, some might go for a no but there can never be a unanimous choice for this issue. (Time,1954). humans all of a unexpected neglect the mere life of the significant government and with none message or communication from the pinnacle level governance; they just commenced forming groups and started out playing via their corporations. they have simply forgotten the presence of a top stage organization within the us of a. They have been residing in their reel life as opposed to their actual lifestyles. (Ding, Y. 2008). consistent with D.D Pratt (1991), transformation from collectivistic nature of man or women to individualism involves transformation of personality. This in his view is finished in terms of perceptual, rational and ethical knowledge. On chinese language factor of view, it's far about perfection and schooling. as a result their view became completely targeted on Confucianism, and their human nature changed into confined in its view. With the appearance of this display, it's miles shown that the chinese language have discovered about the innumerable forms that a human nature relationship can absorb its entirety. Hofstede, G. (2001). The foremost spotlight of the show that in particular characterizes individualism is the way every one is given the freedom to explicit themselves, how they're given the liberty to express their feelings, there internal mind, no matter their tradition. The show confirmed that tradition is simply nothing but sharing between one another and the resulting obstacles that expand to individual agencies. when people from exclusive tradition, from distinctive walks of the society are pitted in opposition to every other, they make their own assumptions about others handiest based totally on their personal way of life that is their values and principles they observe. these are simplest reasonable from their factor of view, now not from others. subsequently, those conceptions take a dig once they do something wrong, which in turn, leads them to do self conscious work and this is, individualism. So, self-aware nature gets into them once they input the display itself. This in flip affects the already inherent cultural values internal them. (Ding, Y. 2008). the other motives that I could nation for the evaluation of individualism in terrific girl show is that it isn't always only presenting the cutting-edge technology kids, a position version to search for , or a precept to comply with for, but the reality is the feel of warmth, a sparkling captivating wavelength flowing among the contestants and the youngsters. They supply high precedence to this warmth, better than their pals; better than their colleagues; and most importantly, higher than the version set created on a moral foundation via the chinese language authorities. the alternative issue is the psychological factor. The adolescents are able to get psychologically inspired thru this display. psychological idea includes , a belief in inner to observe their intention, a head start to reap their goals and an mindset, which can take fulfillment or failure – no matter what comes, taking each in a high-quality manner. So, for a majority of these aspects, the culture of the brilliant ladies can be used as an tool in shaping up their career. (Yan, Y 2000) An apt example for this situation could be, the application of policies and policies in an apt manner may be accompanied with the aid of other rule making or governing institutions. individuals who sense are lagging in academic career, can give attention to their greater-curricular competencies with this show as an idea. So, this display gives the self esteem to the teens and within the manner applies self-awareness. another example that would be supplied is how even the under-privileged humans can learn from the notable women, the ability to persist till the goal is reached. It offers them the self assurance not to relaxation till the limelight is achieved. (Zan, Z.2009). according to Ha Jin, an acclaimed writer, The chinese language teens have modified their personal belief. They reflect onconsideration on themselves otherwise. they may be self-worthier and that they have started to assume in terms of making a living for themselves to gain their purpose. He feels that human beings are not any greater questioning that individualism is a awful aspect and they're appreciating it conclusion it is a truth that the “amazing girls” show has sown the seed of individualism in China. this situation can be in comparison to a drowning character who gets air mixed with carbon dioxide. it's far obvious that the man or woman will try and take as a great deal air as feasible without caring the level of carbon dioxide. The identical has happened in China. but, this can't be exaggerated through any method. even though the show is going for walks for a duration of 6 years, the quantity of individualism effect it had upon the chinese language youth is very minimal. Individualism is a complex difficulty and is without delay associated with the development of the country. China, being the quickest developer within the international is yet to are available terms with the individualistic nature of u.s.on cultural angle. The countrywide differences are going to stay established between these nations. no matter, how many distinctive numbers of shows come, the domination of traditional collectivism in historic China is not going to be replaced by way of individualism any time soon. References Hofstede, G. (2001). subculture’s effects (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. McCrae, R. R. (2001). Trait psychology and tradition: Exploring intercultural comparisons. magazine of personality, 69, 819–846. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M,. & Kemmelmeier,M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–seventy two. Pratt, D. D.(1991) Conceptions of Self within China and the us : Contrasting foundations for grownup training.global magazine of intercultural relations. 15. 285-310. 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Schimmack, U., Radhakrishnan, P., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V. & Ahadi,S. (2002). culture, persona, and subjective properly-being: Integrating process models of life-delight. magazine of character and Social Psychology, 82, 1313–1329. Ding, Y. (2008). A essential assessment of yankee Idol and exceptional lady: A pass-cultural communication evaluation of yankee and chinese cultures. Retrieved from : http://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/377/1/Yding_2008-1_BODY.pdf Zan, Z.(2009). Paradise and paradox : at the awesome Voice women : elementary discussion on popular way of life, young people, media and state politics of modern China. Retrieved from: https://dspace.library.ubc.ca/dspace/bitstream/2429/7872/1/ubc_2009_spring_zhang_zan.pdf (n.d)(198>GET ANSWER