1) Design a digital circuit by writing the Verilog Codes based on following specifications.
There are 5 inputs, v, w, x, y and z that represent grade of 5 products inside a box. Each of the
inputs is 8-bit. The grade of the product is according to the number of “0” in the 8-bit input as
7- 8 : A
3-4 : C
0-2 : D
An output out represents the category of that box based on following conditions :-
If total number of product with grade A is the highest, out = 0
If total number of product with grade B is the highest, out = 1
If total number of product with grade C is the highest, out = 2
If total number of product with grade D is the highest, out = 3
- Resolve ties by choosing the higher grade.
v = 00000001, w = 00000000, x = 00011111, y = 01010101, z = 00100000 : out = 0
v = 10100000, w = 10110100, x = 00000111, y = 01101011, z = 00001000 : out = 1
v = 11001110, w = 01101010, x = 01111000, y = 01111111, z = 00110111 : out = 2
v = 11111111, w = 11011111, x = 11101101, y = 11111101, z = 01111111 : out = 3
v = 01101101, w = 11111111, x = 11111111, y = 00000000, z = 11011101 : out = 3
You have to use the concept of connection of instances for the top level module and procedural
constructs/connection of instances for low level modules. Top level module only consists of multiple
low level modules.
You need to verify the designed circuit by writing test bench for it and simulate using ModelSim. No
need to test all combinations.
2) Design a digital circuit by writing the Verilog Codes based on following specifications.
i) An input in is between 0 to 15 and it will be inserted to the circuit one for each clock cycle.
ii) An output out will be based on the following conditions
If majority of the input in for the last five clock cycles are an even number, out is the maximum
number of in for the last five clock cycles
If majority of the input in for the last five clock cycles are an odd number, out is the minimum
number of in for the last five clock cycles
iii) The circuit is positive edge triggered and synchronous reset. The circuit starts to process the input
signal in based on positive edge triggered and also when the rst is equal to 0. Assume that the input
signal in is available at every clock cycle.
You may refer to figure 1 for an example of the waveform for the above circuit. You have to use the
concept of procedural constructs. Needs to verify the designed circuit through simulation
Americas, the Old-World Europeans became eager to settle and trade with new people. With the movement of people, the exchange of diseases, crops, and culture, are inevitable. The Old World gained new crops such as sweet potatoes and maize, which increased the European populations by huge amounts. The exchange created a much-needed path across the world and in turn, increased trade. Among the many gains the exchange wrought, it also festered losses. European exchange with the New World highlighted the lack of immunity to common bacteria and illnesses that the Native Americans had. The transmission of diseases brought by Europeans to formerly isolated areas caused death and devastation in the New World communities. Europeans spread smallpox, typhus, and smallpox. However, the spread of diseases wasn’t one sided in the Columbian Exchange. Sailors brought syphilis to Europe on the journey home, which caused social stratification in the Old World. The devastative effect of the European diseases on the American population left a demand for labor that outweighed the supply of people able to work. This propelled the forced movement and capture of over 12 million Africans over three centuries (Manning, 1990). Exploration Until then the Western countries had lain on the fringe of civilization, with nothing apparently beyond them but Iceland and small islands. With the discovery of the Cape route and America, nations formerly peripheral found themselves central, with geographical forces impelling them to leadership. The opening of old lands in Asia and new ones in America changed Europe forever, and the Iberian countries understandably felt the changes first. The Portuguese government, for a time, made large profits from its Eastern trade, and individuals prospered; but Oriental luxuries were costly compared with the European goods that Portugal offered, and the balance had to be made up in specie. This eastward drain of gold and silver had gone on long before Portuguese imperial times, but it was now intensified. Much of the bullion reaching the Orient did not circulate but was hoarded or made into ornaments; consequently, there was no inflation in Asia, and prices there did not rise enough to create a demand for Western goods, which would have reversed the flow of bullion from the West. The Portuguese obtained most of the precious metal for this trade from spice sales through Antwerp and from Africa. The drain proved critical, and, by the reign of John III, the government found itself hard pressed economically and forced to abandon overseas posts that were a financial burden. Later, beginning in the 17th century,>GET ANSWER