Develop a critical discussion in the body paragraphs, provide specific and appropriate examples, then end with a conclusion. Analyze and discuss the examples, and define all important terms.
Refer to relevant critical theory to support your argument.
Q2. Discuss the theme of paralysis in any TWO stories (DO NOT discuss ‘Clay’ in this question) from James Joyce’s collection of short stories, Dubliners. How is paralysis manifested in the portrayal of the city of Dublin and how does it affect the lives of many of the characters in the stories? Provide critical insight throughout your discussion. Make sure you illustrate your answer with specific examples from the stories.
The essay gathers the perspectives of a range of bottom-up and top-down scholars exploring the utility of the PA model in understanding policy implementation, while also exploring methods to improve the effectivity of public policy implementation (subject to the policy’s relevant contexts). The PA theory only assumes how divergence in policy implementation is a result of shrinking and/or sabotage of the current policy for personal gains or maximizing personal utility, hence resulting in the conflict of intended goals and outcomes. The following point would be most effective in light of today’s increasingly shifting organizational structures, causing a ‘new kind of professionalism’ due to this organizational change. The understanding of this shift is vital as it contextualises the essay’s point of the inadequacy of the PA theory in modelling conflict. With discretion defined to be the agents’ choice or judgment within recognized boundaries, this essay then argues that the practice and concept of discretion is of vital importance in understanding the work of street-level bureaucrats in avoiding implementation conflict, and successful policy implementation. Among others, Gofen, Tummers & Bekkers, Holmstorm & Milgrom, and Knill, discuss the rigidity, one-dimensionality, and overly linear approach of the PA theory, and the importance of viewing policy implementation through the implementing agent (SLBs)’s perspective. The PAT regards divergence as a conflict of the agent’s rational-choice, however as Knill writes how the top-down approach is arguably a highly over-simplified model of political steering, further analysis for emotional and professional reasoning will be rationalized in explaining this divergence. The theory assumes a rational-choice approach, wherein the principal sets the intended policy goals and outcomes, and the SLB expected to carry out those policies in accordance to the principal’s demands. Gofen, incorporating Lipsky’s basic claim , states that the SLBs decisions, routines, and tools they use, effectively become a part of the policy they carry out, and hence the policies are regarded to be just as good as the implementers on the ground. Because policy implementation is tied so intricately with its implementing agents, street-level divergence is essentially inevitable, and essentially a process>GET ANSWER