QUESTION 1- Refer to the GCU Introduction, The Death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy and the three concepts of the “healing environment” found in chapters 7-9 of Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing. What is the phenomenology of illness and disease (i.e. the personal “what it is like”)? Cite references from your reading to support your answer. What is a personal analysis of your own experience with illness and disease and how several factors colored that experience? How can you relate to The Death of Ivan Ilych? QUESTION 2- What is the Christian concept of the imago dei? How might it be relevant to our unique approach in health care and why is it important?
'Political cartoons are vivid primary sources that offer intriguing and entertaining insights into the public mood, the underlying cultural assumptions of an age, and attitudes toward key events or trends of the times. Since the 18th century, political cartoons have offered a highly useful window into the past. Just about every school history textbook now has its quota of political cartoons'' ' Jonathan Burack Burack says that the simplicity of the cartoons is what makes cartoons deceptive, the more simplicity of the drawing or visual, the more complex the thought behind it. He points out that cartoons have evolved from the 1700's where they were elaborate heavy on dialogues and obscure visuals. He says cartoons in short, are visual strategies to make a point in small spaces. Cartoon is an imprecise term applied to a multitude of graphic forms. Though being better than other terms such as caricature, it can be broadly divided into two categories: cartoons of opinion and joke cartoons. Cartoons of opinion are primarily visual mean of communicating opinions and attitudes, humour may be present but not a necessary part of it. On the other hand, joke cartoons are designed to communicate humour. This art form dates back to at least 3300 years. The world's oldest caricature was unearthed in Egypt where the subject of mockery was none other than the Egyptian king 'Pharaoh Akhenaton'. And it happened when he tried to give his country a new religion, new government and a new capital city around 1360 BC. Caricatures were always there, they have been found on Ancient Greek pottery depictions, lampooning both political leaders and overweight Olympian gods. The Roman Empire's political discontent appeared scrawled on walls, mocking strict or incompetent military commanders as well as fringe religious movements. Ancient Indian rulers also were no less immune to caricatures that attacked political elites and their Hindu gods. What is significant in these manifestations is that these cartoons were produced independent of editorial control or profit motive and appeared on mediums other than newsprint. Political cartoons are made of two elements ' caricature, in which the subject is parodied and allusion, in which the subject is placed under the situation or context. Caricature is a western art which dates back to Leonardo da Vinci's artistic explorations of the ideal type of deformity namely grotesque that he used to explain the concept of ideal beauty. As the time goes the established principles of form by Leonardo became so ingrained into the portraiture method that several other artists rebelled against him. So in order to make satire more lighthearted caricature came as a counter art. It was a new genre which was quick, impressionistic and exaggerating prominent physical characteristics to humorous effect, bringing out the subject's inner self in a kind of physiognomic satire. Caricatures started to become popular with collectors, perceiving the fanciful exercises as curiosities rather than an artistic work, so instead of displaying it publicly they were shown in parlors and drawing rooms. The printing press invention profoundly changed the scene of political cartoons. Printing led to the emergence of the broadsheet, which circulated throughout Renaissance Europe. During the 17th century, William Hogarth was perceived as the precursor of political cartoons. His cartoons were loaded with satire and sequential artistic scenes, aimed for social criticism. His cartoons brought out the corruption of early 18th century Britain politics. His works includes the iconic portray of the disastrous 1720's stock market crash known as the 'South Sea Bubble' leading to loss a great deal of money. His masterpiece 'A Rake's Progress' had a strong moral tone that shows how cartoons were becoming a vehicle of setting social agenda. The art of cartooning started to develop in the latter part of 18th century. James Gillray was a well-known name during this time who explored the medium of cartooning especially during French Revolution. His works ridiculed the ambitions of the revolutionary and Napoleon's motifs through lampooning and caricatures. Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, his use of knowledge of life, keen sense of the ludicrous, and beauty of execution, put him amongst the top cartoonists once. It shows how cartooning was becoming influential and gaining widespread acclaim. Magazines like 'Punch' started to publish in 1941 became a national institution due to its influential and widely acclaimed artists such as John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene. By the mid-19th century, magazines were evolved into newspaper and publishers printed their take upon day to day politics. One of them was the famous influential cartoonist Thomas Nast from New York whose cartoons attacked the criminal activities 'Boss Tweed' political machinery. By the late 19th century cartoonists started to draw inspiration from other sources such as Shakespeare, Bible, sports, mythology and other contexts. According to Charles Press, author of Political Cartooning, in order to make a political cartoon effective it must have the four following qualities ' ' Artistic quality - but the artistry must not get in the way of the message. ' Genuine sentiment - but it should not feel phony. ' Fresh, uncomplicated imagery - should be striking, forceful, and amusing. ' Lasting importance - the subject of the cartoon should be important so the cartoon can be understood by future readers. Following are the other significant elements that goes into the making of political cartoons - ' SATIRE - Political cartoons uses satire in order to make an observation about a situation. It touches those issues that may not be suited for commentary by an editor. A cartoon is endorsed by a newspaper and is definitely a questioning and decisive piece that at times may even be biased. A good cartoon says what the editorial may try to avoid, cartoons are safe as the prevalent humour quotient brings certain balance to controversies and that is why any newspaper tries at getting out the best artwork. Cartoonists use specific devises to get their message across.>GET ANSWER