Since 1963, a series of United States Supreme Court case decisions have clarified that in criminal cases, prosecutors must disclose to the defense evidence favorable to the defendant. This includes information that may be used to impeach the credibility of government witnesses, including law enforcement officers. These decisions mean that police officers who have documented histories of lying in official matters are liabilities to their agencies, and these histories may render them unable to testify credibly. Part 1: Please write a professional memorandum summarizing the main issues that are involved in the following United States Supreme Court cases.
Distinguish what you consider to be the heritage of the craftsman Bernd and Hilla Becher for the significance of the photographic picture. 'The cutting edge picture taker is the designer's most prominent marketing expert'; that is, whether one considers engineering photography an idiotic replicating gadget, and an unadulterated record that illuminates the spectator just of the building and its usefulness. Anyway commonplace a progression of photos delineating just water towers may appear, Bernd and Hilla Becher committed much consideration regarding capturing such symbols of post-war Germany thus made a chronicled report. Along these lines, the Bechers' living inheritance is 'a story of socio-memorable reality in light of photography's capability to hold some indexical hint of its subject', however as specified by Mack, the Bechers are among those picture takers who are additionally 'engaged with some level of development or creation, unmistakable from the pragmatist and target position which is typically credited to [photography]'. Their photography and lessons speak to a period when photography was winning genuine thought by the European craftsmanship scene as are certainly imperative and compelling, however maybe the most directed inquiry toward ask of their work is the correct idea of its effect on different specialists, on the idea of the photographic picture, and on the scene of Germany of which the mine poles and storehouses they shot were a fundamental part. Similarly as a noteworthy content is the subject of the creator's understanding of the truth of the occasions, a photo is the result of the picture taker's decision and control of a picture. It is plain that the Bechers were not endeavoring to compliment engineers or affirm of the plan and capacity of the structures they captured, as is frequently the case in the exemplary comprehension of compositional photography. Despite the fact that it can't be denied that their numerous pictures, similar to those of August Sander, make a social report for successors' purpose, the photos are not the slightest bit a wistful beholding back to the past or a consolation of German personality. The innovation delineated in the Bechers' typological groupings, regularly in a condition of decay or deserting, could be said to speak to a period of otherworldly neediness and the 'disintegration of acquired social and good qualities'. In light of this proposal, Bernd and Hilla Becher appeared to look for report their subjects in a clinical, target way; staying captivated with however shedding the past with the expectation that 'the unburied mechanical wellsprings of Modernist symbolism be cleaned and separated from us, keeping in mind that [they]… attack the psyches of another age'. In this way, dissimilar to August Sander, the Bechers are more inspired by demonstrating us demise (as opposed to Sander's life investigation of the classes of Germany); the photos can be said to look forward to a superior future just if the watcher translates it so. Shouldn't these photographs at that point, interested by death to the point of necrophilia, be documented and overlooked? Or maybe, it ought to be said that the photographs develop our comprehension of the photographic picture, unequivocally in light of the fact that they fill in as an obvious indication of a past far from which the world has moved. As much as it was thoughtful for German craftsmen to deny history in the quick post-war period, Bernd and Hilla Becher demonstrated it, with naturally functionalist genuineness and truth. Review the photos, we realize that the profoundly harsh time to which the structures have a place has passed thus see our position positively. Photography is the work of art that is most firmly practically identical to our existence; regardless of whether they intended to or not, the Bechers have made craftsmanship through which we see history with a clearness that can't be increased through memory or other artistic expressions. Photography has dependably been related with some thought of removing and keeping the past all together that it isn't overlooked, in spite of the fact that not really so as to laud or honest to goodness the occasions in that. A broad accumulation of in an exposed fashion honest design representations, for example, the Bechers', could be said to be a method for protecting the structures and what they speak to, as opposed to a method for banishing them to 'the registers of the dead' all together that society pushes ahead (or if nothing else far from the artificial 'movement' of industrialisation). Safeguarding, truly, and as critical to the reestablishment of German way of life similar to the preservation of Auschwitz. In fact, the Bechers were vigorously engaged with the German modern conservation development that began in the 1950s and brought about various symbols of the nation's financial and social history being recorded and their obliteration averted. The intensity of the Bechers' craft, and accordingly part of their rendering of photography as a critical frame, is unmistakable in that the photos were compelling to the point that they turned into a piece of a development which changed (or kept up) Germany's scene. It can likewise be said that, in protecting the winding rigging, the system laborers' homes and storehouses in their craft, the Bechers' 'modern prehistoric studies' was an examination concerning particular networks. Regardless of cases that their subjects are totally confined from their condition, the photos are regularly dated and their areas recorded, and in this manner offer a relevant indication of a particular space and time for each comparative yet altogether extraordinary picture. From that point, a watcher can set aside opportunity to think about the stilled physicality of the structures, their quiet watch, while staying mindful of their particular presence inside individual social orders. While this is an extensive piece of the Bechers' typological studies' inheritance, their method for demonstrating structures is unquestionably not human-centric. Never do they deliberately utilize the human shape to legitimize or improve their mechanical subjects. In reality, it is the specific nonappearance of the human frame that makes these photos so fascinating on the grounds that really 'the workmanship of men is wherever obvious' and the accumulation stands halfway as a declaration to mankind's unlimited creativity and imaginativeness. The Bechers' interest with metal and all that runs with its creation couldn't be an all the more great articulation about that which is outsider to human physical presence, however similarly it is a remark on the degrees to which modern individuals are compelled to go due to their dependence on the laws of nature. Not straightforwardly keen on the human shape, but rather by the by a result of the human personality and aptitude, the Bechers' specialty demonstrates mankind's hailing endeavor to ace nature, to reign it in and utilize it or, without a doubt, to 'make nature in the picture of their own wants'. Such a fight can just end in disappointment as, with water towers for example, the plain capacity of the structures advise us that we are completely dependent on the world's assets; just when we consolidate our comprehension of powers, for example, gravity with our craving to stay alive are we ready to make advancements that serve us while maintaining nature's laws. In so saying, it is intriguing to take note of that the static picture of the photo helps one to remember the disavowal of development. The Bechers enable the watcher to see, through their relatively comprehensive accumulation of comparable pictures, the contrasts between the people self and the structures in the photos. The most pointed qualification being the manner by which each surrenders to the procedures of advancement. While we proceed onward from war, from old thoughts regarding workmanship, from financial crest to monetary trough, these structures remain especially the same. This turns out to be a piece of the removing procedure that appears to make the Bechers' work so imperative; the photographic picture is unchangeable, verifiable truth that will dependably stay in the past while we proceed onward ourselves. The photos come to deny the 'advancement' they initially remained for, thus reaffirm our place in the present and, all the more critically, propose our continuation into a future that will be unique. The Bechers' work has gotten much consideration; notwithstanding winning an esteemed prize for mold. The confining of the captured structures, the uniform lighting utilized and the subjects' evident opportunity from their obvious condition permits a balance, which brings the structures nearer to sculptural treatment than the two-dimensional reportage that is frequently the part of the photographic picture. As Klaus Bussmann states in first experience with the Bechers' Industrial Façades; 'in these photos the capacity of the engineering does not rise up out of its frame'. Not all like the craft of the Neue Sachlichkeit, the Bechers' photography does not praise the 'dynamic and sensational usefulness of the modern machine'; in reality it doesn't contribute them with any significance at whatsoever. We contribute them with importance and recollections – however the Bechers were apparently captivated by their deadness, their static place in history and their examination with the dynamic quality of human presence. The Bechers' work had an amazing effect on the craftsmanship world, and the effect of their inheritance is somewhat because of the way in which they showed their photos when their work was shown. On the off chance that there is a contention that portrays the photographic picture as a tasteless record of what we would all be able to see as it exists or existed in nature, at that point the Bechers' typological builds deny this. Found in gatherings; one working in contrast with twelve others of nearly (however distinctly not) indistinguishable appearance, the subjects of the photos are reproduced once more, and abruptly move toward becoming an option that is other than their unadulterated physicality. The watcher is overpoweringly welcomed to observe those distinctions, to see the likenesses and varieties at the same time – would they say they are indifferent or not, wonderful or appalling? Seen together, the pictures turn into a more prominent test to the watcher's idea of platitude, of all inclusiveness and the major center of human needs. Close by their individual post-war photogr>GET ANSWER