- With reference to Ch. 4 of But is it art?, please explain Pierre Bourdieu’s statement, “Taste classifies, and it classifies the classifier” (94). Do you agree or disagree, and why?
- The final scene of Daisies shows the two Maries feasting and then destroying a banquet hall. The end of the film is ambiguous. Describe the film’s final moments and explain how they contribute to the film’s message. (Some ideas to get you started: Is the film a tragedy? Or is it an anarchic celebration? Are the Maries dead? If they are dead, is that a punishment for their behavior or are they now finally free?)
- Explain the argument of Linda Nochlin’s 1971 essay “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” as summarized in Ch. 5 of But is it Art?
- Please describe the work of one artist from Ch. 4 of But is it Art? who fought the will of the market by making art which couldn’t be sold.
Understanding the benefits of bilingualism can aid in improving Singaporeans’ perceptions on their mother tongues, thereby encouraging them to appreciate their languages and culture. Moreover, bilingualism can act as an incentive to future employers, especially when applying for career positions which require decision-making. Preliminary Research: Explaining the Foreign-Language Effect It is undeniable that language has a strong influence on the way we think and the choices we make. A well-known phenomenon would be that people are more reluctant to take risks if an impersonal decision is presented as a potential gain rather than framed as a potential loss, even though the outcomes are identical (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). 1. In Risk-Taking People are generally risk averse, constantly forgoing multiple opportunities despite how attractive it can be. This is so as people are usually affected emotionally twice as much by loss as they are affected positively by gains of an equivalent amount. However, new findings have shown that such aversion to loss is drastically reduced when the decision is made in their foreign tongue (Keysar, Hayakawa & An, 2012). Typically, people associate their native language with emotions, which may confuse their logical thinking. Therefore, it is theorized that speaking in a foreign language makes people more rational by creating a psychological distance, causing them to switch from automatic to systematic thinking (Jarrett 2012). This lack of emotional connection with their foreign language leads to a more rational thought process. By regularly making decisions in a foreign language, bilinguals might be more willing to take risks and welcome opportunities, as they exhibit less myopic loss aversion. In the long run, this behavior could be very much beneficial. 2. In Moral Issues In another study, when bilinguals were confronted with a moral dilemma, it was noted that the participants were more likely to choose the utilitarian option of maximizing benefit for the majority (Costa, Foucart, Hayakawa, Aparici & Apesteguia, 2014). This highlights that using a foreign language affects moral judgement. Similar to risk-taking, this might be due to the use of a foreign language inhibiting emotional processing. People are more utilitarian in their foreign tongue because they feel less, not because they feel more (Hayakawa et al., 2017). Another possibility would be that more cognitive effort is needed when using a foreign language, resulting in the person slowing down to think more deliberatively, therefore more rationally. Although rational decision-making in terms of loss aversion and moral judgment has been shown in bilinguals with foreign language, it has not been widely observed in bilinguals with a second language that is not considered foreign. These people are typically early bilinguals who are frequently exposed to both langua>GET ANSWER