A rule of thumb suggests that 1 mg/L of alum destroys 0.5 mg/L of alkalinity as CaCO3.
1.Use your knowledge of coagulation chemistry to prove that this is approximately true
2.Using this rule of thumb, would the natural alkalinity of the water shown below be sufficient to add 80 mg/L alum, or would we need to add NaOH to prevent the pH from dropping?
A square rapid-mixing basin, with a depth of water equal to 1.25 times the width is to be designed for a flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. The RMS velocity gradient (G) is to be 790 s-1, the detention time is 40 sec, the operating temperature is 50oF, and the turbine shaft speed (i.e. the impeller rotation speed) is 100 rpm. Calculate:
ted that: ‘Turkey has drawn our admiration for the valor of Turkish people and the way in which your statesman and the leaders have struggled and fought almost single-handed in the midst of Europe for your freedom and sovereignty which is worth mentioning, ‘I really can assure your excellence that the Muslims of Pakistan will entertain sentiments of affection and esteem for your country and now Turkey and Pakistan both as free, sovereign and independent countries can strengthen their ties more and more for the good of both’. He also hoped and said that being Muslim Countries people of both of these countries will put their genuine backing and team work to establish closer political and cultural ties among these states and thus contribute their share in the welfare and betterment of the subject of these two brotherly states. (Zafar, 1978). After few years the Western powers anxiously wanted to link the defense of West Europe of the Middle East formed the establishment of the Middle East Defense Organization in March 1953. At that time the Egyptian leadership under Nasser stoutly opposed the above mentioned Middle East Defense organization and no Arab country, except for Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan was found to be enthusiastic. The proposal therefore fell through and Western strategies began to concentrate on the ‘northern tier’, comprising (Ali, 2001). Joint Communique 1954 On 19 Feburary1954 in a Joint Communiqu??` issued together in Karachi and Ankara; it was declared that Turkey and Pakistan were agreed to adopt the mechanisms of closer cooperation in the political, economic and cultural departments, and they will also put their sincere efforts to develop peace and security between each other not only in their own interest but also in the interest of all peace loving nations. (Burke, 1973) That contents of that Turku-Pakistan communiqu?? of February 1954 developed into concrete shape in an agreement signed on April 2, 1954. According to that agreement’s Article IV which dealt co-operation in defense, and statement shows that a switch of information regarding technical grounds will be made and endeavors will be done to fulfill the requirements for the ample supply of arms and ammunition in case of unjustified attacks under Article 51 of the charter of United Nations. (Hussain, 2008). Baghdad Pact Turkey and Iraq laid the foundation of the Baghdad Pact, signing a Pct of Mutual Cooperation for ‘security and defense’ in February 1955 in the Iraqi capital. It was not an auspic>GET ANSWER