What are three or four ways that your generation differs from your parents’ generation?
he parent’s personal economic and cultural experiences. East Asian parents would have experienced education for a longer period than white working-class parents who, many of which, would have gone straight into work at the age of 16. For East Asians these experiences mean that as a culture they have “placed a high value on education as a means for achieving upward mobility, social respect and self-improvement” (Lee, 1987- cited from Schneider and Lee, 1990, p.362). However, this is greatly different from the white working-class who, as Stevenson and Stigler (2006, p.21) argue, have highly misjudged ideas about the personal and economic investments involved in gaining high levels of academic achievement, especially regarding universities. This point about parental experiences and intentions for their child is crucial, as it’s been found that most children develop “self-expectations” based around what they know of their parent and teacher’s hopes for them (Schneider and Lee, 1990, p.362). Schneider and Lee (1990, p.362) also made the point that once the child has formed these self-expectations they then go on to “translate these standards into performance”. This means the child forms certain characteristics and behaviours that correspond with the expectations of them, regardless of whether they’re good or bad features to have. The previous points have been found in many studies making them highly reliable and more commonly known as a self-fulfilling prophecy. An example of the characteristics that East Asians form would be industriousness, docility, and an intense motivation to achieve academically, which Schneider and Lee (1990, p.360) argue are the major reasons for Asian academic success. For the white working-class, as their parents hold less value on education, they would feel less pressured to do well in school therefore causing them to be more relaxed and not gain similar characteristics to the East Asians. Teachers label them as louder, more disruptive students who are less inclined to learn and do well, making them less favoured. This contrasts the positive label that teachers give to East Asians, believing they will achieve. This process of teacher labelling shapes the teacher’s behaviour towards the student, which then begins to affect the student’s views and achievements. The white working-class pupil is mostly given negative feedback and attention from teachers, making them form a fatalistic view and feel as though they can’t succeed in higher education therefore there isn’t any point in considering it as an option. Meanwhile the East Asian students are continually pressured to do well and form a positive outlook and set of characteristics that will motivate them to attend higher education. The cultures contrasting attitudes towards learning difficulties (especially that of a parent) can affect access to higher education. As Nayoung Kim (2010) argued, the views of what is considered both normal and deviant are constructed by the surrounding society, meaning that different cultures have different definitions of disability. Due to this, the view of the parents doesn’t necessarily match with the professionals. This leads onto the point that “Asians are less likely (than Europeans) to believe that their child has a learning disability” (Nayoun>GET ANSWER