Three religious-based reform movements: Protestantism in mainland Europe, Protestantism in England, and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, as well as the subsequent violence they caused. Choose one of these movements and discuss the influence of political, spiritual, or cultural aspects of the movement as well as any subsequent strife (warfare and other forms of violence).
parents/guardians of the child and their educators work harmoniously together to maintain a consistent approach. Play is central to the process and there needs to be a sense of purpose for the child in that play together with an understanding that the child must be viewed holistically as a thinking, feeling person. Encouragement is used rather than punishment to help the child to expand their self-confidence and autonomy. Play can also be used to help the child learn to be able work alone and also with others (Willinsky, 1990 p154-5) . The environment in which the child is placed will also have an important role in their development. Whilst the environment needs to be safe it must also encourage curiosity, stimulation and challenge. Indoor and outdoor activities widen the possible areas of learning and vary the environment providing interest and variety. Froebal also saw working in an environment that is integral to the community to be important in helping the child to be both independent and interdependent and to understand individuality and community and responsibility and freedom. These basic ideals were set out originally by Froebel in his 1826 book ‘The Education of Man’. He viewed his own childhood with limited parental attention and remembered his loneliness and using this as his starting point he developed his ideals. He also drew on the knowledge of previous educators when developing his own system of education (Polito, 1996)(p. 161-173). This point may well need to be revisited now with the advent of computers and television programmes specifically aimed at young children. Research needs to be aimed at determining the effects of lack of face to face attention from parents and other adults at home and learning being ‘handed over’ to mechanical means. There would appear to be correlations between Froebal’s situation and that of many children today. Lack of interaction with other children and a range of adults limits the possible range of learning situations and may create problems with social interaction later in life although research into this area needs to be conducted to fully understand the effects. Having only the TV or computer for entertainment will also serious limit the child’s imagination through lack of personal interaction and physically being involved in the play. This may affect motor skills too through lack of use and a reduced range of movement. In my own childhood I was always encouraged to use inventive play and would create theatre sets with my friends and we would perform little puppet shows for our parents. This type of play involved a variety of concepts; craft work to create the sets, linguistic skills to write the plays, integrated play by playing with others and dexterity to use puppets. Froebel’s methods are still valid today and can provide children with a wide range of experiences and instil in them curiosity and interest that can be built upon throughout life. Despite how long ago these principles were first developed they are still fully appropriate today perhaps because they relate to the core aspects of development leaving room for the method to be varied as necessary. The gifts such as gift 2 (a set of 3 blocks one square, one sphere and one cylinder) can be moved together with rods and strings to provide multiple possibilities f>GET ANSWER