Businesses often modify or replace their financial information system to keep pace with their growth and take advantage of improved IT. This requires a substantial time and resource commitment. When an organization changes its AIS, a systems analysis takes place.
Explain the purpose and reasons for surveying an organization’s existing system.
Explain the activities commonly performed during systems analysis.
Systems analysis is often performed by a project team composed of a systems analyst, a management accountant, and other knowledgeable and helpful people. What is the management accountant’s role in systems analysis?
including Janus Kinase-2 (Jak2), Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-5 (Stat5), Ras and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) and AKT kinase. These signalling pathways are essential in differentiation, proliferation, survival, and motility of the cells. Binding prolactin to its receptor acts as a firing signal for a rapid phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1and 2), mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, CREB, ATF-2, and p53 and activation of 37 transcription factors in ovarian carcinoma cells. PRL was found to phosphorylate STAT5, m-TOR and ERK in ovarian cancer cells (9). Ovarian cancer is known for its high rates of loss of tumor-suppressor gene BECN1 which offers new therapeutic opportunities by inducing sustained autophagy (6) fig. Research results have indicated the presence of mRNA for prolactin and overexpression of prolactin receptor PRLR in ovarian tumors (2). The prolactin was able to induce ovarian cancerous cell proliferation and to transform epithelial cells to cancerous tissue. Ras pathway activation was the way prolactin used to transform these cells (3). The importance of prolactin in the development of ovarian cancer is highlighted as an autocrine molecule which its blockade would result in autophagy mediated programmed cell death (6). Prolactin receptor (PRLR) has been widely studied. It is known to be a cytokine type 1 receptor, which involves non-tyrosine kinase, single-pass transmembrane chains (20). It is composed of three different main domains spatially. Each domain is existing in a specific part throughout the extra, trans and intramembrane regions (5). The gene encoding PRLR is located on chromosome 5 and includes at least 10 exons for an overall length exceeding 100 kb. Differing from PRL, for which a single transcript encodes a distinctive mature protein, multiple isoforms of membrane-bound PRLR resulting from alternative splicing of the primary transcript (19). Prolactin receptor signaling is activated by the formation of a heterotrimeric complex including one ligand bound to two identical receptor moieties forming a homodimer. This ternary complex involves 3 intermolecular interactions termed sites 1 and 2 (between PRL and each receptor) and site 3 (between the two receptors). The functioning complex then triggers various intracellular signaling cascades including the canonical Jak2/STAT5 pathway, MAPK, AKT and SRC cascades (20). PRLRs and PRL are expressed by the ovarian cancer cell lines (13) Fig.1 Over the past years, a number of PRLR antagonists have been developed, which can be divided into two groups, PRLR analogue and anti-PRLR antibody (12). PRLR antibodies as a result were good candidates for detection, localization and analysis for the receptor in immunological experiments (5>GET ANSWER