Discuss why EBP is an essential component of the practice of a BSN-prepared RN. Identify two ways in which you will continue to integrate evidence into your practice and encourage it within your work environment. What obstacles could challenge this plan, and what steps will you take to minimize their impact?
Once the computer was successfully developed in the 1950’s, it allowed cognitive psychology to become a dominant approach in the field of Psychology. Cognition needs to be modelled to aid cognitive scientists in understanding how the brain works, to predict human behaviour and to create machines that can perform human tasks (Gentner, D., & Forbus, K, D). The computer gave cognitive psychologists an analogy to compare human cognitive processes. An analogy is an algorithm and algorithms are actions used to manipulate and change representations, they are formal and well defined. Algorithms are similar to computers as they can be likened to software because software contains instructions for the processing of data (Freidenberg, 2010), much like human cognition. Two types of models are important in the history of cognitive processes in relation to computers and these are: The connectionist model and the Bayesian models of concept learning. The main thesis is that humans have a more extensive background of knowledge and learning that computers would not be able to match. Boden, 2004 agrees as he states that no A.I system can learn to speak like humans, or behave like humans as it does not have the background knowledge humans have due to its extensive learning. However, Turing (1963) theorised that a computer can think and act like a human to such an extent that a human observer could not distinguish the performance of a computer from that of a human. The Turing test was a strong indicator of the Artificial Intelligence approach. The artificial approach attempts to mimic human functions and attempt to build devices that can mimic human thought processes (Eysenck, 2008). Artificial intelligences methods include developing and testing computer algorithms. The Turing test, otherwise known as the ‘Imitation game’ was criticised by the Chinese room experiment by John Searle which states an unintelligent machine is capable of passing the Turing test. The Chinese room experiment is a theoretical construct by John Searle who states “Suppose I am given a rule book in English for matching Chinese symbols with other Chinese symbols. The rules identify the symbols entirely by their shapes and do not require that I understand any of them (date #).” This suggests that like in the Turing test after going through rules and identifying correct symbols in response, there is no understanding of the Chinese language only a manipulation of symbols with no meaning attached (LACurtis, K. 2011). The A.I approach also crystallised Marr’s computational theory. Marr (1982) was a cognitive scientist who followed the connect>GET ANSWER