In this activity, you will study the effect of pH, temperature and lactose concentration on lactase activity. By the end of this activity, you should be able to:
design experiments to study the effects of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration on enzyme activity.
graph data related to enzyme activity.
analyze data related to enzyme activity.
complete a lab write-up summarizing and analyzing your results for the effect of temperature on lactase activity.
identify the components of the scientific method.
identify components of the substrate-enzyme-product system being studied.
Before beginning this activity, make sure you are comfortable with the concepts of independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and hypothesis. You will be applying these concepts in this lab, plus in many of the future labs. To prepare for the lab, watch the following http://%20https//www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2j2KGwJXJc%C2%A0%C2%A0
and think about enzymes, substrates, products, maximum rate of reaction, and optimal conditions.
We will work through Experiment I, testing the effect of pH on enzyme activity, together during our Zoom lecture. You will then individually use what we did together as a model to design data collection tables and study the effect of temperature and the effect of lactose concentration on lactase activity (Experiment II and Experiment III). Please note, this requires that you totally understand what we are doing while we are together in our Zoom session. You will take this understanding and apply it in a slightly different experiment to complete Experiment II and Experiment III. Experiment IV requires you to look at the materials and methods available to you in the simulation to determine if you can study the concept of enzyme specificity using the website.
The quick development and across the board utilization of web based life has changed the manner in which numerous individuals impart and share data. Online life incorporate different sites, for example, Facebook and Twitter which are the two most famous interpersonal interaction suppliers, video sharing sites like YouTube, an assortment of web journals which empower clients to post their own articles and enable guests to leave criticism, talk gatherings and other person to person communication foundation of correspondence that individuals can use for instructive or different purposes. As of late countless individuals around the globe have turned out to be dynamic clients of online life. System of Global Agenda Councils Reports (2011-2012) demonstrated that overall more than 1.2 billion of individuals utilize online networking, a number that records for 82% of all web clients around the globe (Councils, 2012). A large number of these clients investigate web so as to get to medicinal data and other to share their worries about wellbeing related issues or to search out restorative treatment. Moreover numerous medicinal services experts, for example, doctors, drug specialists and attendants utilize internet based life as a foundation of correspondence to advance patient wellbeing and security just as instruction device (Frances Griffiths, 2012). Anyway reckless and abuse utilization of internet based life can result to various horrendous circumstances. Both medicinal services suppliers and patients ought to know about the dangers of utilizing social foundation of correspondence. Potential dangers among others incorporate the break of individual information, the distribution of low quality restorative data and the underestimation concerning the earnestness of a circumstance from a social insurance proficient either because of absence of satisfactory data or because of arrangement of off base or off base information given by a patient during an online discussion (Harlow, 2012). In UK there isn't a particular direction given from the Health and Care Professions Council, yet it has been clarified that web-based social networking ought to be utilized inside the significant benchmarks of lead, execution and morals. It perceives that long range interpersonal communication is a profitable method to convey and share data yet in addition brings up that the social insurance experts who will choose to utilize it as a feature of their work must ensure that will carry on with genuineness and trustworthiness for the wellbeing of the open securing tolerant secrecy and showing their polished skill consistently (Health Professions Council Newsletter: Issue 34 – April 2011). In any case in the past have been accounted for some episodes of unseemly utilization of online networking and amateurish conduct where patient's close to home information unveiled on the web without their assent or situations where patients insulted due to remarks produced using different clients identified with their wellbeing status. Gatekeeper announced that somewhere in the range of 2008 and 2011, were completed 72 separate activities by 16 trusts against staff for unseemly utilization of internet based life. A portion of these cases were identified with the rupture of individual information and some other were related either with posting of racists or sex remarks or with sharing of wrong pictures and recordings through open web discussions. These rates urged British Medical Association to give direction to its individuals about how to utilize online life in a suitable manner. (Laja, 2011). The utilization of internet based life enables patients to collaborate with human services experts in a fast and financially savvy way. Likewise enables them to take part individually care so as to deal with their wellbeing and screen their treatment by having brisk access to medicinal diaries and having perspective on various treatment alternatives previously and during counsel from their primary care physician and by utilizing wellbeing related online applications. In like manner web based life utilized from human services experts to interface with people from various topographical zones so as to contribute on their wellbeing improvement by giving them therapeutic records and by making discourse gatherings on wellbeing related subjects. This preferred position allowed them the chance to grow their exercises presenting new administrations, for example, the online interview and the arrangement of various treatment choices with ease. There are situations where internet based life used to advance correspondence both among patients and among Healthcare Professionals. Patients can share their worries and talk about normal sicknesses or conceivable medicinal medications and then again Healthcare Professionals are empowered to share data, encounters and thoughts supporting their long lasting learning (KPMG, 2011). Some long range interpersonal communication stages are allowed to general society however to some other the patients should pay in the event that they need an online conference by a medicinal services proficient or in the event that they wish to talk about and share their worries with other human services suppliers or different patients that experiencing a similar condition. In UK work sites like NetDoctor.co.uk which is given and worked by National Health Service (NHS) and offer a wide scope of administrations, for example, pregnancy email administration and online specialist determination from enlisted UK-based General experts, talk discussions and online applications like manifestation checker that help patients to show signs of improvement comprehension of their social insurance needs. NHS in UK utilizes internet based life so as to improve general wellbeing by giving wellbeing related data through NHS decisions. Likewise it has been coordinated to other internet based life, for example, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to advance its administrations and offer an expansive range of uses. For example online sound way of life counselor, smoking severance projects and weight list (BMI) wellbeing weight mini-computer. These administrations and applications empower patients to choose whether or not they require visiting a specialist for further exhortation holding their protection. Anyway thusly of correspondence can be exceptionally ineffectual, as looking at and deciphering therapeutic notes without the accessibility of a full restorative history and with the nonappearance of physical tests can be a genuine risk to the patient (Britton, 2012). Furthermore determination can wind up inconsistent because of absence of data and precision of information given by the patient or because of underestimation of the earnestness of the circumstance, making on the web counsel second rate compared to an eye to eye interview. Web use measurements demonstrated that the grown-ups that are dynamic clients of Facebook and Twitter in UK come to 37.4 million and 15.5 million individually (Ayres, 2012). Considering this measure of individuals it is straightforward how significant is for Healthcare Professionals to utilize web based life admirably and with polished methodology. Wrong utilization of online networking can influence medicinal services' close to home and expert life. Huge numbers of them uncover patient's close to home information for keeping up an effectively open online restorative record for individual use however they are ignorant that a large number of that data (counting recordings or pictures) they transfer on the web at times can be gotten to, utilized and spread from the overall population without control (Thompson LA, 2008). It is along these lines Healthcare expert's moral and legitimate duty to ensure understanding classification consistently on the web just as to other media. Some person to person communication stages enable to the clients to set security settings so as to avert uncontrolled dispersion of information and to put confinements to people looking for access to data that have been kept private (Thompson LA, 2008). Anyway concerns have been brought up in the past identified with insurance of individual information. Numerous informal organizations transfer and offer information without considering any legitimate or moral contemplations. Distributing individual data of patients without their agree can result to legitimate ramifications. In UK Data Protection Act limits medicinal services suppliers from uncovering any close to home data without patient assent with couple of exceptions. Agreeing Data Protection Act (1998) every close to home datum ought to be decently and legally handled, they ought to be utilized for restricted and explicit purposes in a manner that is sufficient, important and not extreme, they ought to be precise, held modern and for no longer than its essential lastly ought to be remained careful and not moved to nations without satisfactory date security. These days web based life have turned into a basic piece of our lives. Overall population utilizes them to acquire wellbeing related data, to associate with different clients with the expectation to talk about issues concerning their wellbeing, to get instructed by perusing medicinal archives so will show signs of improvement comprehension of their condition or their illness and to seek after new treatment alternatives in a quick and economical way. Web based life have additionally turned into a basic route for social insurance experts to give their administrations so as to improve and screen patient needs, for example, the online discussion. Then again the fast and uncontrolled sharing of data can result to potential dangers and have adverse effect to the arrangement of medicinal services and individual existences of the two patients and social insurance experts. Break of individual information insurance, distribution of deceitful medicinal archives and broken conference because of absence of proof can be a portion of the traps that clients may confront. So as to maintain a strategic distance from these disadvantages the two patients and human services experts need to comprehend the restrictions of the utilization of internet based life. Making limits among individual and expert utilization of online networking is fundamental. Social insurance experts who interface with patients online must keep up fitting limits concerning the relations between them. For example, they ought not examine about wellbeing related issues on a benevolent yet just on an expert level. In December of 2003, President Bush marked the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA), which altered the program to give Medicare inclusion of outpatient doctor prescribed medications. Before Medicare Part D, people were utilizing rebate cards to buy their medicines at a lower cost or getting a restricted inventory from their doctor and a few people was not accepting meds by any means, because of the mind-boggling expense of them and not having the option to bear the cost of them.>GET ANSWER