2.Explain what is involved with the fluid mosaic model of the cell. In addition, specify which macromolecules are involved and describe the role(s) associated with them.
- ATP plays a major role in life’s processes. Explain how the sodium-potassium pump plays a role in secondary active transport.
- Explain which eukaryotic organelle you think is the most critical to the cell.
- Describe three similarities and three differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- If a cell has 100,000,000 water molecules inside and it is placed in a tube with 50,000,000 water molecules, predict and explain what will happen to the cell.
- A battle between an amoeba and a single-celled protist, chilomonas ensues. The amoeba wins, but the large piece of chilomonas is too big to pass through the plasma membrane of the amoeba to eat. Describe the process by which the amoeba absorbs and digests the chilomonas.
An attempt to uncover the effects of capital requirements was done (Clerc et al., 2014). They developed a model to analyze how capital requirements affects the steady state and the transmission of various types of shocks in an economy. There were three main results that stood out in their model. To start with, they found that there is an ideal level of capital requirements. Higher capital requirements reduce bank leverage and hence their risk of defaulting. Lower leverage means that banks, to a larger extent must be financed by equity, so banks’ funding costs increase with capital requirements. The banks will then likely pass on the higher funding costs to borrowers by extending less credit to a higher interest rate. This shows that there is an optimal level of capital requirements because too high levels imply that credit will be too restricted. The model, however, does not comment on what this optimal level of capital requirements is, or what it would be characterized by. Second, they found that the higher degree of leverage there is in banks, the more responsive the economy is to shocks. This implies that limited liability and deposit insurance constitute a potentially powerful channel of financial amplification. The third finding was that countercyclical adjustments of capital requirements may improve the benefits of high capital requirements. Following a shock and the release of the accumulated capital, the buffer is meant to sustain credit sup ply and keep rates down even though defaults by borrowers are increasing. However, in any case, if the buffer is too low, banks may still see a rise in funding costs, which will offset the intended impact of the adjustment of the countercyclical capital requirement. The most important thing to note is also that for regulatory capital requirements to matter, the level of capital in booms must be higher than the levels imposed by the market in recessions (Gourio, Kashyap and Sim, 2017). This is because of the often considerable uncertainty that prevails in periods of financial turmoil, resulting in the market demanding very high capital ratios in banks before their solvency is questioned. Regarding macroprudential policies that can possibly be implemented, a broad distinction can be made between those that aim to reduce risks arising from procyclicality and those arising from interconnections. One way to categorize the different policy tools is to note that systemic risk and hence macroprudential policy, can be divided into two categories (Elliott, Feldberg and Lehnert, 2013). Firstly, structural risks are threats to the economy that are always present. Examples would be the “too big to fail” problem which may induce moral hazard an>GET ANSWER