Pharmacogenomics of codeine

The opioid epidemic has led to a decrease in the prescribing of hydrocodone-containing analgesics and an increase in codeine prescriptions. Discuss the pharmacogenomics of codeine with reference to the human genetics, molecular mechanism and clinical relevance. divide the work into 3 sections – first section(human genetics that codeine works on) – second section (molecular mechanism of codeine) -third section (clinical relevance of codeine) Note: in your answers be sure to address Genetics and alleles variants, molecular mechanism, clinical validity and utility of these genetic variant, how we will know a treatment work by clinical trials and mentioning the ((phase of the clinical trials and end point efficacy)) but not ethics. USE Vancouver style references and high impact journals.

 

 

Sample Solution

 

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