(20 points) Loss of limb specification in the snake lineage was an important evolutionary adaptation in their body form. The Kvon et al. (2016) paper identified changes in the ZRS enhancer that likely played a role in this process. In Figure 5, the authors suggest that nucleotides in the binding sites for the ETS1 and homeodomain transcription factors have an increased rate of change in the snake ZRS compared to other species. Devise an experiment that could demonstrate the functional relevance of these transcription factor binding sites in the mouse ZRS for hindlimb development.
a. Describe your proposed experiment.
b. What is one possible outcome of your experiment?
c. Based on the results you describe (b), what conclusion(s) can be drawn from your experiment about the role of the ETS1 and homeodomain transcription factors in limb specification.
(10 points) What makes one cell type in a developing embryo fundamentally different from another? How do these differences arise during development?
(10 points) This diagram shows somite formation in two species of fish, the platyfish and zebrafish. Even though their embryos are nearly identical in size, the platyfish forms 13 large somites compared to 30 smaller somites in the zebrafish. What specific change to the platyfish somite segmentation “clock and wavefront” might have caused the changes in platyfish somite number and size? Explain how this change would produce the platyfish somite phenotype.
(15 points) You are working in Dr. Sipe’s lab at Shepherd on newly discovered species of non-vertebrate chordate. This organism does not have a backbone as an adult, but a notochord is present during its larval stage. You think you may have discovered a neural crest-like population of cells in this chordate larva. Based on what you know about NCCs in vertebrates, describe three different experiments you could conduct to determine how similar these cells are to vertebrate NCCs.
(15 points) The diagrams below show a series of regeneration experiments performed in the newt. In your answers, be as specific as possible in terms of limb structures that will regenerate.
a. The distal part of the forelimb is amputated, and the remaining limb is inserted into the body wall to heal and establish a blood supply. The tissue boxed in red is subsequently removed from the limb and regeneration is allowed to proceed. What is the outcome of regeneration in limbs a and b?
b. Instead of removing the tissue in the red box, you rotate it 90° as shown and implant it at the very proximal end of limb b as shown in the diagram. What is the outcome of regeneration in limb b after this manipulation?
c. You perform the same tissue manipulations as in part (b), but you also implant a bead soaked in retinoic acid near the blastema in both limbs. What is the outcome of regeneration in limbs a and b?
(10 points) Explain how transcription factor expression in a neuron can influence where its axon migrates in the developing embryo.
(20 points) The schematic diagram shows a cross section through the trunk of a mouse embryo during patterning of the neural tube. The yellow structure is the notochord, and the different populations of neurons produced in the ventral neural tube are shaded blue.
a. In the lab you generate a conditional knockout mouse for the patched gene. In this mouse, ONLY the cells of the neural tube lack the patched protein; all other cell types are unaffected. Predict how this genetic manipulation would affect the patterning of ventral neurons in the neural tube (be specific—use the diagram). Why?
b. Why must you use a conditional knockout for the experiment described in (a)? Why wouldn’t a complete knockout of the patched gene work?
c. Next, you look at neural tube patterning in a mouse completely lacking the gene for gamma-tubulin, a component of the centrosome that is required for cells to make a cilium. Predict what would happen to the patterning of the ventral neurons in the neural tube. Why?
d. What other developmental abnormalities would you predict the mice described in (c) might have?
Presentation This section presents hypothetical and experimental writing survey identified with film the travel industry exercises. Explicit spotlight was set on Tanzanian social legacy the travel industry goals cases. It additionally shows hypothetical structures and hypotheses identified with film the travel industry. Different subtopics exhibited remembered writing for traveler appearances, salary development and film the travel industry sway on goal territories' economy. Introduced in this area is likewise a methodological audit of related writing and research hole. It ought to be noticed that, experimental survey of writing comes later in this area purposely for the accompanying reasons: (I) Since this exploration triangulated a great deal of information sources, it required a long introduction different hypotheses and hypothetical system appropriate to particular information (ii) It was hard to blend hypothetical and exact information in similar subsections. 2.1 Conceptual Review of Literature This area audits a few speculations appropriate to this proposal. The hypotheses were utilized for discourse of discoveries in section five and information working through affirmation and distortion in part six. In this area, displayed are likewise calculated structures, which helped in managing this exploration. In spite of the way that, the issue of film traveler travel inspirations and effect on visited destinations has drawn a noteworthy consideration among film vacationer and geographic specialists (Shepherd, 2003), there is no agreement among academicians and analysts that, a solitary hypothesis can adequately address visitor travel inspirations, Parinello (1996). The unpredictability of the travel industry and heterogeneous nature of human conduct makes this a profoundly testing scholarly field for examination (Balon, 2010). This examination utilized the AIDA hypothesis alongside hypothesis travel inspirations and semiotic speculations as a hypothetical base for theoretical deductive information working in this theory. 2.1.1 The AIDA Model Present day showcasing hypothesis can be appeared in the AIDA Model (Li and Yu, 2013). The model is utilized for depicting chain of command of occasions and can be utilized to clarify stages that clients utilize beginning with attention to accomplish their obtaining choices (Hudson et al; 2010). A.I.D.A model is an abbreviation for Attention, Interest, and Action individually. Li and Yu (2013) attempted to clarify the AIDA model segments in detail: 184.108.40.206 Detailed Description of AIDA Model (an) Attention alludes to the specialty of standing out to clients. In film the travel industry different systems in a motion picture like portrayal styles and situation of items in motion pictures could draw the consideration of clients on the benefits of specific items or administrations. (b) Interest-This is the work on raising enthusiasm of clients to specific items or administrations, by concentrating and exhibiting on focal points as opposed to centering o includes alone as is for conventional promoting. In this proposal for instance, showing the development of land highlights, for example, arrangement of stalactites and stalagmites on a film, would give understudies/students the benefits of learning through observing and store learning upgrades for quite a while in their memory. This may trigger their educators and understudies to make a craving to go to Amboni caverns. (c) Desire-this is the demonstration of persuading your clients that, the item or administration you are attempting to offer, will fulfill their needs. In our Oldupai Gorge depiction, the storyteller attempted to persuade his clients by disclosing to them that, they won't lament to visit Oldupai which is a support of human development. That meeting of Odupai Gorge, won't just furnish guests with formal fulfillment yet additionally satisfy the longing to see wild creatures encompassing the chasm. (d) Action-After the clients are persuaded of the fulfillment that they can get past acquiring an item or administration, the subsequent stage is to make a move to buy the item or administration. For instance, real activity of visiting a social legacy traveler goal like Oldupai Gorge, Amboni caverns or Kondoa Irangi chronicled locales. As indicated by Li and Yu (2013), as the client passess through the AIDA ventures till he makes a move to buy an item or administration, each progression has the inclination of diminishing clients in with the end goal that, toward the end just not many, the ones who settle on buying choices remain. In such manner, the AIDA model turns into a rearranged pyramid, as clients go through each progression. The fundamental focal point of advertising choice anyway is to ensure that, the lower end of the AIDA model pyramid turns out to be enormous (Ibid), which means expanding potential clients who make a move to settle on obtaining choices. Figure 2 THE AIDA MODEL Source (Li& Yu, 2013) 220.127.116.11 Application of AIDA MODEL to Film Tourism Marketing The AIDA Model has been utilized by certain researchers in the investigation of film the travel industry and goal advertising (Hudson et al; 2010 and Hudson et al; 2013). AIDA model is the amazing model in this theory. It was utilized to assess the means that, film visitors went from making enthusiasm to settling on a choice to travel (regardless of whether they caught wind of film the travel industry and Zamadamu programs, in the event that they watch or not, in the event that they made enthusiasm to go in the wake of viewing and on the off chance that they settled on a choice to travel as a result of viewing the Zamadamu program or not). This model was coordinated with the movement inspirations model Macionis (2004). In the last mentioned, the analyst was intrigued to discover factors that persuaded them to travel (Place, Performance or character). Such factors asked resembled investigate, touristic relaxation and training among others. It ought to be noticed that, through the movement inspirations model was likewise used to perceive how the Zamadamu made consciousness of goals and settled on choices to travel, the AIDA model is stupendous showcasing hypothesis in this postulation. Be that as it may, the Travel Motivations hypothesis plays an exceptional guide in this theory specifically, to discover the "impact of film the travel industry on goal development" (appearances, income, framework and other negative consequences for the inquired about social legacy traveler goals). Blend of AIDA and travel inspiration model, were comparably, utilized by Hudson et al; 2010 and Hudson et al; 2013). They utilized the AIDA model to discover the effect of item arrangement through the chain of importance of impacts. They at that point moved to utilizing the movement inspirations model, to discover factors that roused them to travel (Place, Personality and Performance). Their discoveries demonstrated that, intrigue, experience, characteristic state and modesty were sure factors that impacted them to travel while the inverse included atmosphere, social likeness and absence of language boundaries were negative variables. 2.2 Theories of Travel Motivations The postulation utilizes the hypothesis of movement inspirations (Macionis, 2004) as backup hypothesis to AIDA hypothesis. It is alluded as a system for understanding film the travel industry (Hudson and Ritchie (2005). Its introduction, thus has included thoughts of various film the travel industry scholars including, Macionis, (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie (2005). Various scientists have utilized the push pull factor film the travel industry inspiration hypotheses in movie form the travel industry explore (O'Connor, 2010). This hypothesis doesn't have any significant bearing to film the travel industry examine alone as identified with movement inspirations. Scientists have demonstrated that film the travel industry field began utilizing it in film contemplates in the ongoing years. Steward (1990) put this association in clear terms when he uncovered that, these days travelers have put little noteworthiness on perusing materials as their significant sources about goal data and depend much on visual data there by making movies and TV as the most solid and critical wellsprings of goal data. The model for understanding film the travel industry exhibited beneath (fig. 1), speaks to 'pull-push factors for traveler travel inspirations. The model is exhibited with the goal that the discourse that trails its introduction makes ease comprehension of film the travel industry. Macionis (2004) clarified the idea of film prompted visitor through "Push and Pull hypothesis". He set that, sightseers are roused to go through 'push' and 'force' factors (Also, O'Connor, 2010, Butler, 1990, Hudson and Ritchie, 2005). Push factors are those that initiate a vacationer to venture out to specific goals, for example, daylight, ocean, creatures, landscape, mountains and streams. The second classification of components that may prompt a visitor settling on choice to travel is the 'destroy elements' which as indicated by Macionis (2004) and Hudson and Ritchie, 2006a) are separated into three classes which incorporate (a) place (goal, goal qualities, scene and view), (b) character (cast, characters and VIP and (c) execution (sort, plot and subject). Force factors are those that inclining visitor to travel (Macionis, 2004). In film the travel industry, "3 Ps-spot, character and execution speak to pull factors where as its effects on inspiration; dream, escape, status, distinction, scan for self personality, conscience, upgrade, vicarious experience of the sightseers speak to the push factors (Ibid) These movement inspirations have additionally been very much explained by Hudson and Ritchie (2005) model for understanding film the travel industry. Their model incorporates in addition to other things film the travel industry promoting exercises. Hudson and Ritchie (2005) found that, a film visitor is motivated by these variables (I) goal showcasing exercises (2) Film explicit components (iii) goal properties. These elements bring about dismantle push inspirations to film traveler (Smateera (2015). Film showcasing exercises are done when; the film is being debuted and appropriated, just as during each discharge window. Extra business exercises can be made however film the travel industry can thusly support the augmentation and reinforcing of a guest reason (Hudson and Ritchie 2005). Film showcasing exercises are pull factors and are many running from help for film studios by destina>GET ANSWER