Mr. Jones, age 37, is the CEO and owner of Jones Farm. He inherited the farm from his father and resides in the family home there with his wife Jane, age 35, and 4-year-old daughter, Angel. The Jones Farms is a large producer of various fruits, vegetables, and grains. Through trial and error, Mr. Jones, found a local company that produces an insecticide containing chlorpyrifos to be the most economical and effective insecticide for his crops. This insecticide has been used for almost 7 years at the farm for every crop produced. With easy access to this insecticide on the farm, it has been commonly used for pest control within their large home as well.
Being proud owners of the crops grown on the farm, the Jones family often take advantage of the fresh fruits and vegetables available for their own table. Their consumption of the farm’s harvest has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted their finances. The Joneses and their toddler, Angel, enjoyed fresh fruit and vegetables from the farm throughout the day.
Mr. and Mrs. Jones have recently grown increasingly concerned about their daughter’s development. They have noticed that Angel seems to still be having a hard time with potty training despite being 4 years old. She has not picked up on basic colors and animals sounds that her preschool peers have almost mastered. Angel’s preschool teacher has mentioned that all children learn at their own pace but has voiced another concern with Mr. and Mrs. Jones regarding Angel’s motor skills development. While Mr. Jones appears relatively healthy, both he and Mrs. Jones frequently experience migraines which they attribute to the stress of everyday life and finances. Mrs. Jones often experiences nausea and even vomiting along with migraines.
After reading the case study and researching chlorpyrifos, respond to the following discussion points:
Identify how the family members could have been exposed to chlorpyrifos.
Identify the exposure pathway of chlorpyrifos.
What organ systems were affected by the chemical?
What observable acute and chronic effects could be produced from exposure to the chlorpyrifos? What effects were observed in the case study? How and why are the effects different in the individuals? (i.e., what individual profile factors can affect toxicity?)
How could exposure to the chemical be avoided?
The paper must have a minimum of two pages, not counting the title and reference pages. Utilize at least three credible references, one of which may be the textbook.

Sample Answer

Sample Answer


Title: The Impact of Chlorpyrifos Exposure on the Health of the Jones Family

Thesis Statement: The chronic and acute effects of chlorpyrifos exposure have impacted the health of the Jones family, leading to developmental delays in their daughter and health issues in the parents. Understanding the pathways of exposure and potential individual profile factors can help in mitigating the effects and preventing further exposure.

The use of chlorpyrifos, an insecticide, on the Jones Farm has inadvertently led to the exposure of the Jones family to this harmful chemical. This essay aims to explore how the family members could have been exposed to chlorpyrifos, the exposure pathway of chlorpyrifos, the organ systems affected by the chemical, observable acute and chronic effects, and how exposure to the chemical could be avoided.

Exposure to Chlorpyrifos
The Jones family’s exposure to chlorpyrifos is primarily through multiple pathways. Firstly, Mr. Jones, as the CEO and owner of Jones Farm, is directly involved in overseeing the application of the insecticide on the crops. This direct contact with chlorpyrifos during application can lead to dermal exposure. Additionally, inhalation of chlorpyrifos can occur during spraying, increasing the risk of respiratory exposure for Mr. Jones and any other farm workers.

The consumption of fruits and vegetables grown on the farm also presents a significant pathway for exposure to chlorpyrifos for all family members. The easy access to the insecticide on the farm has resulted in its use for pest control within their home, further increasing the risk of exposure for the family. Moreover, the chronic use of chlorpyrifos as a pesticide within their living environment has likely led to continuous low-level exposure.

Effects on Organ Systems
Chlorpyrifos affects the nervous system, particularly the brain, by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for proper nerve function. As a result, both acute and chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos can lead to neurotoxic effects. Other organ systems that may be affected include the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems due to inhalation and ingestion of the chemical.

Observable Effects
Acute effects of chlorpyrifos exposure can include dizziness, nausea, headaches, and in severe cases, respiratory paralysis. Chronic effects may manifest as developmental delays in children, cognitive impairments, and neurological disorders. In the case study, Angel’s developmental delays in potty training, language acquisition, and motor skills development are indicative of potential neurodevelopmental impacts from chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos. Additionally, Mr. and Mrs. Jones’ frequent migraines and Mrs. Jones’ nausea and vomiting align with the observed effects of chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos.

Individual Profile Factors Affecting Toxicity
Several individual profile factors can influence the toxicity of chlorpyrifos. These factors include age, genetic predisposition, pre-existing health conditions, and cumulative exposure. Children like Angel are more susceptible to the neurodevelopmental effects of chlorpyrifos due to their developing nervous system. Additionally, genetic variations in enzymes responsible for metabolizing chlorpyrifos can also impact an individual’s susceptibility to its toxic effects.

Avoiding Exposure
To avoid further exposure to chlorpyrifos, the Jones family should consider implementing alternative pest control measures on their farm that do not involve the use of this harmful insecticide. Switching to organic farming practices and utilizing integrated pest management strategies can significantly reduce their reliance on chemical pesticides. Furthermore, implementing strict safety protocols during pesticide application and using personal protective equipment can minimize direct contact and inhalation exposure for Mr. Jones and farm workers.

The case study of the Jones family serves as a poignant reminder of the potential health impacts of chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos. Understanding the pathways of exposure, organ systems affected, observable effects, individual profile factors influencing toxicity, and strategies for avoiding exposure is crucial in safeguarding the health and well-being of individuals and families exposed to this hazardous chemical.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2007). Toxicological profile for chlorpyrifos.
Eskenazi, B., Marks, A. R., Bradman, A., Harley, K., Bartell, S., Johnson, C., … & Holland, N. (2007). Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(5), 792-798.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2021). Chlorpyrifos: Revised human health risk assessment for registration review.


This question has been answered.

Get Answer